**Final Exam Study Guide**

As with the midterm, you do need to understand concepts.
There will be numerous questions that will be conceptual as opposed to
requiring calculations. The good news it that by doing numerous practice
questions, and __studying__ the answers, concepts will become increasingly
clear.

ONLY concepts that were discussed in class will be covered on the exam. For example, you don’t have to worry about any slides that I said you could ignore during lecture. Similarly, any topics not covered in the course will not be on your final exam. For example, summer quarters do not typically include hypothesis testing. Some quarters do not cover binomial probabilities.

· All questions are single answer. In other words, multiple-choice questions will have only one correct answer.

· There
is no penalty for wrong answers. So if you don’t know the answer, be sure
to __guess__!

· You will be provided with a z-table, binomial probabilities table, and formulas

**Chapter 4:**

· Normal distribution (means, medians, z-scores, etc) since this material will be covered in the context of chapters 4-6.

· Conceptual
understanding of dependence, disjointness: Again **remember** that
conceptual understanding does not mean memorizing definitions. You need to have
the definition in front of you, but then think about that definition as you do
problems.

· Understanding of Sample space, Events

· Probability rules: General addition and multiplication rules. You do not need to review tree diagrams or Bayes Rule.

· Random Variables

o Probabilities of discrete random variables

o Probabilities of continuous random variables under density curves

o Mean and SD of discrete random variables

· Law of large numbers

**Chapter 5:**

~~·~~~~
Binomial Probabilities~~

~~o~~~~ Mean and sd of a
binomial distribution~~

~~o~~~~ Normal approximation
(when it can/can’t be used, calculation of)~~

~~·~~~~
Proportions – ~~*NOT required for this exam*.

~~o~~~~ Calculation of sample
proportions~~

~~o~~~~ Mean, sd of a sample
proportion~~

~~·~~~~
Differentiate between distribution types: Normal, Binomial~~

~~·~~~~
Making the normal “approximation” when dealing with proportions or
counts (p322)~~

~~·~~~~
Continuity correction and onward (p.326) until end of 5.1 can be ~~__ignored__

· Dealing with samples (as opposed to population):

o Mean and SD of a sample: Be able to calculate, but also understand conceptually

· Central Limit Theorem – basic theoretical principle

**Chapter 6:**

· Section 6.1:

o Conceptual understanding of confidence interval, confidence level, margin of error

o Calculation of
statistical confidence including confidence intervals for a given confidence
level and/or z^{*} value

o NOT Required for this exam: Being able to choose a sample size when given a margin of error

· Section 6.2

o As discussed in slides and in lecture: Important to understand concept of significance testing, hypothesis (null vs alternate), rejecting/accepting the null hypothesis, P-value, one-sided vs two-sided tests. Most questions will be conceptual.

o As discussed in class, the only calculations will be of a basic P-value. However, you do need to know how to calculate for both a one-sided vs two-sided test.