To Lecture Notes
History of Islamic Empire
Fred Hill and Nicholas Awde, A History of the Islamic World,
Hippocrene Books, 2003.
Gerhard Endress, Islam: An Historical Introduction,
Columbia University Press, 2002.
Michael Morgan, Lost History: the Enduring Legacy of Muslim
Scientists, Thinkers, and Artists, National Geographic, 2007.
Map of Territories of Islamic Empire under Various Dynasties
- 520 The Decimal System of mathematics is invented by Indian
mathematians. The ten digits we use today are called Arabic numerals
in English; however, they are called Hindu numerals in the Arabic
language, which is more accurate.
Muhammad is born.
- 630 Conquest of Mecca by an army of 10,000 men,
assembled by Mohammed.
- 632 Death of Mohammed; tribe of Thaqif adopts Islam;
the first year of the Islamic calendar.
- Many tribes on the Arabian Peninsula unite by
discarding their tribal religions, accepting Islam and joining together to
form a military alliance. Together they formed a Muslim army and conquered
neighboring kingdoms. The monotheistic teachings of Mohammad seemed to
resonate with these peoples; they quickly abandoned their tribal religions
in favor of Islam. In the next 1200 years, the growth of Islam is astonishing;
the total percentage of the Muslim population in the word increases by
more than 1% every 100 years.
- 632 - 661 Period of rule by the four
"Rightly Guided Caliphs Abu Bakr (632 - 634), Umar (634 - 644),
Uthman (644 - 656), and Ali (656 - 661).
Each of these Caliphs had known Muhammed personally, which gave
them authority. This period is called the Rashidun Caliphate.
|Date ||Conquest |
|635 ||Damascus, Syria |
|637 ||Jerusalem, Palestine |
|642 ||Alexandria, Egypt |
|643 ||Barqa, Palestine |
|647 ||Tripoli, Libya |
- 661 Rise of the Umayyads.
Damascus established as Umayyad capitol. Succession of Caliphate becomes
|Date ||Conquest |
|652 ||Balkh, Afganistan |
|698 ||Carthage, Tunis |
|709 ||Bukhura, Pakistan |
|711 ||Taskkent, Usbekistan |
|712 ||Tangiers, Morocco |
Dome of the Rock completed by Caliph Abd al-Malik
- 721 - 805 Jabir ibn Haiyan, alchemist, pharmacist,
philosopher, and mathematician, is known as the
"father of chemistry."
- 749 Rise of the Abbasids.
Abu al-Abbas becomes Caliph. His title is
"Commander of the Faithful." One of the Umayyads escapes to Spain
and becomes Caliph in Spain in 756.
Art flourished during the time of the Umayyads.
Depiction of persons or animals was discouraged in religions paintings to
avoid idol worship.
Depicting Muhammad himself was particularly offensive.
Calligraphy for religious texts in Arabic script was highly prized.
Artwork depicting geometric shapes and plants was encouraged.
- 751 Paper-making spreads to the Islamic world.
- 762 Abbasids move their capital to Baghdad.
- 770 Great mosque in Cordoba built.
- 780 - 850 Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, mathematician
and astonomer, adopts Indian
numerals. Known as the "father of algebra."
- 875 Abbas ibn Firnas, chemist, physicist, and
astronomer, constructs the first glider at age 70 and launches himself from
a mountan. He dies 12 years later from injuries incured by the
- 900 Abu Nasir al-Farabi, philosopher and scientist,
write a book on music that is still used as a reference for Arabic
- 976 Al-Azhar university is founded in Cairo.
- 980 - 1048 Abu Ali al-Hysayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina,
physician, philosopher, and scientist, is known as
"the father of modern medicine."
- 1055 Seljuks capture Baghdad, but maintain Abbasid
Caliphs as religious figureheads.
- 1095 Pope Urban II calls for the first crusade to recapture
Jerusalem from the Muslim Empire.
- 1096 The first crusade to Palestine.
- 1098 The crusaders capture Jerusalem.
- 1100 Omar Khayyam, mathematician and poet,
composes The Rubayyat.
- 1126 - 1198 ibn Rushd, philosopher and physician,
translates Aristotle's works from Arabic to Hebrew.
- 1187 Saladin recaptures Jerusalem.
- 1194 Occupation of Delhi, India by the Muslems.
- 1245 Muslims reconquer Jerusalem.
- 1245 Mongels sack Baghdad.
- 1258 Destruction of Baghdad by Mongol leader Hulegu.
The Caliph and his family is killed.
- 1293 Last of Crusader forces driven out.
- 1296 The Mongol ruler Gazahn Kahn converts to Islam.
- 1365 The Turks of the Ottoman Empire defeats a
Christian army at the battle of Maritza. This places the ruler of
Byzantium under the authority of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1390 Construction on the
Alhambra Palace is finshed Grenada, Spain. Planning for this
palace complex started back in 1238 by Adballah ibn al-Ahmar. Notice these
features of the Alhambra:
- 1492 The Moors are driven from Spain by the Christians.
Although the Moors are Muslims at this point, the Moors as a people date
back to the 3rd century BC.
- 1453 Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks.