N  O  T  E  S

Chapter 1

History
The Divisions Begin

Mary Boykin Chesnut quote, in C. Vann Woodward (ed.), Mary Chesnut's Civil War (New Haven, CT, 198 1), pp. 59, 729.

Harriet Jacobs quote, in Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (Coral Gables, FL: Mnemosyne Publishing Co., 1969), p. 119.

Mission of shipping " maydens," in Suzanne Lesbsock, "No Obey," in Nancy A. Hewitt, Women, Families, and Communities: Readings in American History, vol. I; To 1877 (Glenview, IL: Foresman-Little, Brown Higher
Education, 1990), p. 12.

First Africans in Jamestown, in Lerone Bennett, Jr., Before the Mayflower.- A History of Black America (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co.,1982). pp. 34-35.

Discussion of first female English immigrants, in Suzanne Lesbsock, "No Obey," H ewitt, op, cit., pp. 12-14; and Bennett, op. cit., p. 35.

Census data on first Negroes in America, in Bennett, op. cit., p. 35.

Law about pregnant indentured servants, in Suzanne Lesbsock, "No Obey," Hewitt, op. cit., p. 14.

Opportunities for upward mobility, Suzanne Lesbsock, "No Obey," Hewitt, op, cit., pp.15-16.

Changing laws about slavery and the status of mulatto children, in Joel Williamson, New People: Miscegenation and Mulattoes  in the United States (New York: Free Press, 1980), p. 8, and Bennett, op. cit., p. 45.

Ratio of Africans to White bound laborers arriving in the colonies, in Suzanne Lesbsock, "No Obey," in Hewitt, op. cit., p.19.

Why slavery came to be abolished in the North, in jean R. Roderlund, "Black Women n Colonial Pennsylvania," in Jean E. Friedman, William G. Shade, Mary Jane Capozzoli, Our American Sisters: Women in American Life and Thought (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath & Co., 1987), pp. 55-69.

Phillis Wheatley, in Bennett, op. cit., pp. 71-72.

Percent of female slaves working as fieldworkers, in Jacqueline Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrotv. Black Women, Work, and the Family from Slavery to the Present (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1985), p. 14, p. 16.

Anne Firor Scott quote, in Anne Firor Scott, "Women's Perspective on the Patriarchy in the 1850s," in Friedman, Shade, Capozzoli, op. cit., p.156.

Expected roles of slave women and White mistresses, in Deborah Gray White, Arn't I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1985), p. 17.

Mistresses working hard and related quotes by Harriet Martineau and slave Polly Colbert, ibid., pp. 51-52.

Mistress about Christmas, in Anne Firor Scott, The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics 1830-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), p. 30.

Mary Chestnut's beliefs about slavery, in Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South (Chapel Hill: NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), pp. 47-48

White men being invested in White women's beliefs about the good of slavery, in White, op. cit., p. 58.

George Fitzhugh's views of slavery and its effects on women, in White, op. cit, p. 45; Fox -Genovese, op. cit., p. 199.

Thomas Dew's beliefs about slavery, in Fox-Genovese, op. cit., pp. 197-198.

William Drayton quote, in White, op. cit., p. 44.

White women not being convinced that slave women as prostitutes was advantageous, in Ann Firor Scott, The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics 1830-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), p. 53; p. 18 White women sharing beliefs that slave women were promiscuous, in White, op. cit., pp. 38-40.

Rape of slave women, in Gerda Lerner (ed.), Black Women in White America: A Documentary History, (New York: Vintage Books, 1972), p. 158; in Joel Williamson, New People: Miscegenation and Mulattoes in the United States (New York: Free Press, 1980), p. 42.

Some slave women as concubines, in Stanley Feldstein, Once a Slave: The Slave's Views of Slavery (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1970), pp. 133-134.

Mistresses been treated badly by their husbands, in White, op. cit., p. 40.

Mary Chesnut quote, in Woodward, op. cit., p. 29.

Mistress beating thirteen-year-old girl, in Feldstein, op. cit., p. 132.

Mulatto hypothesis and discussion of skin color beliefs and slaves, in Kathy Russell, Midge Wilson, and Ronald Hall, The Color Complex (NewYork: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992), pp. 126-127.

Quote by son regarding his mother's relationship with a house slave, in Anne Firor Scott, The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics 1830-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), p.48.

Clothes and slaves being dressed better than farmers' wives, in Fox-Genovese, op. cit., pp. 216-219.

Story about Sarah Gayle, ibid., p. 22-26.

Slave's cynical comment about mistress crying, ibid., p. 131.

Failure to give slaves housecleaning instructions, in Feldstein, op. cit., p. 130.

Fight between mistress and slave woman, in Dorothy Sterling We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York: W. W. Norton, 1984), p. 57.

Owners valuing birth of slave children, in Herbert Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-,1925 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1976), pp. 75-76.

Slave marriages based on real affection, in Sterling, op. cit., p. 37.

Mary Chesnut quote, in White, op. cit., p. 97.

Slaves not being so sexually liberated, in bell hooks, Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminiism (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1981), p. 54.

Gender role conventions from Africa, in Fox-Genovese, op. cit., p. 290.

Medical complications associated with childbirth, in White, op. cit,, p. 83.

Slave women valuing motherhood more than marriage, in Fox-Genovese, op. cit., p. 64.

Slave women's views about pregnancy, in White, op. cit., pp. 83-88.

Role of Black Mammy, ibid., pp. 56-60.

White mistresses watching over slave children, ibid., pp. 53-54.

Quote by mistress who hated watching over slaves, in Anne Firor Scott, The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics 1830-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), p. 47.

Women's social movements and the Colored Female Religious and Moral Society, in Anne Firor Scott, Natural Allies: Women's Association inAmerican History (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), pp. 13-I4.

Black women forming first antislavery group, ibid., PP- 45-46; and in Sterling, op. cit., p. xiii.

Quaker women integrating antislavery groups, in Anne Firor Scott, Natural Allies: Women's Association in American History (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), p. 51.

Black women attending first national antislavery conventions, and greater acceptance of lighter-skinned women, Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Discrimination against Afro-American women in the woman's movement, i830-1920," in Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (eds.), The Afro-American Woman: Struggle and Images (Port Washington, NY: National University Publications Kennikat Press, 1978), p. 19.

Black women holding few illusions about marriage, in Sterling, op. cit., pp. 89-92.

Grimke sisters, in Compton's Encyclopedia, Online Edition, Downloaded from America Online, Aug. 12, 1993.

How women's movement came into being, in Anne Firor Scott, Natural Allies: Women's Association in American History (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), pp. 53-54.

Mott and Stanton radicalized by London, in Mary Becker, Cynthia Bowman, and Morrison Torrey, Cases and Materials in Feini'nist Jurisprudence: Taking Women Seriously (Minneapolis: West, 1993), pp. 1-2.

Seneca Falls convention, ibid., p. 2.

Douglass, in Rosalyn M. Terborg-Penn, Afro-Americans in the Struggle for Woman Suffrage, a dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Graduate School of Howard University (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1983), p. 29.

Black women's demands to be heard, in Sterling, op. cit., p. 410.

Truth beginning her participation in the women's movement, ibid., p. 41.

Sojourner Truth in Akron, Ohio, in Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Discrimination against Afro-American women in the woman's movement, 1830-1920," in Harley and Terborg-Penn, op. cit., p. 20.

Quote by Truth, in Sojurner Truth, "Ar'n't I a Woman," speech in White, op. cit., pp. 13-14

Women running plantations during Civil War, in White, op. cit., p. 106.

Changes in women's role after Civil War, ibid.

Members of Freedmen's Bureau encouraging traditional sex roles, in Sterling, op. cit., p. xi.

Biblical injunction, in Jacqueline Jones, Labor of Love, Labor Of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family from Slavery to the Present (NewYork: Basic Books, Inc., 1985), p. 67.

Black women perceiving freedom as opportunity to devote to family, ibid., p.78.

Black husbands taking pride in buying wives fancy clothes, ibid., p. 69.

Black women being harassed by White men," in hooks, op. cit., p. 55.

Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments, in Anne Firor Scott and Andrew MacKay Scott, One Half the People: The Fight for Woman Suffrage (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982), pp. 15-16; in Mary Becker, Cynthia Bowman, and Morrison Torrey, Cases and Materials in Feminist Jurisprudence: Takng Women Seriously (Minneapolis: West, 1993), p. l0;  Bennett, op. cit., p. 260.

Douglass, in Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Discrimination against Afro-American women in the women's movement, 1830-1920," in Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (eds.), The Afro-American Woman: Struggle and Images (Port Washington, NY: National University Publications Kennikat Press, 1978), p. 20.

Quote by Anthony, in Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle: The Women's Rights Movement in the United States (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1975), p. 147.

Quote by Truth, in Sterling, op. cit., pp. 411-412.

Educated White women outraged about illiterate Blacks getting the vote ahead of them, in Anne Firor Scott, Natural Allies: Women's Association in American History (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), p. 135.

Split in suffrage movement," ibid., pp. 135-136; in Becker, Bowman, and Torrey, op. cit., p. 10.

Majority of women not suffragists, in Carolyn Johnston, Sexual Power: Feminism and the Family in America (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1992), p. 102.

WCTU, in Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Discrimination against Afro-American women in the woman's movement, 1830-I920," in Harley and Terborg-Penn, op. cit., pp. 21-24.

Amelia Bloomer, Frances Harper, and Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, ibid., pp. 22-23.

Black and White Southern joining forces to prevent lynching. in Carolyn Johnston, Sexual Power: Feminism and the Family in America (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1992), p. 109.

Jessie Daniel Ames, in Paula Giddings, When and Where I Entey,: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex America (New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1984), pp. 207-208.

Anna Julia Cooper, in Johnston, op. cit., p. 107.

Black men opposing suffrage, in Rosalyn M. Terborg-Penn, Afro-Americans in the Strugglefor Woman Suffrage, dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Graduate School of Howard University (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1983), p. 268.

Quote by Mary Church Terrell, ibid., p. 269.

Wells-Barnett, in Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Discrimination against Afro-American women in the woman's movement, 1830-1920," in Harley and Terborg-Penn, op. cit., p. 24.

Sylvamle Williams's comment to Anthony, Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Discrimination against Afro-American women in the woman's movement, i830-1920, in Harley and Terborg-Penn, op. cit., p. 24.

Reference to Alice Paul, in "Discontented Black Feminists:  Predule and Postscript to the Passage of the Nineteenth Amendment," Lois Scharf and Joan M. Jensen (eds.), Decades Of Discontent: The Women's Movement, 1920-1940, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983), p. 264.

Southern states that failed to ratify the suffrage amendment, in Johnston, op. cit., p. 105.

"Historian believing the suffrage amendment would have passed soon anyhow," in Anne Firor Scott and Andrew MacKay Scott, One Half the People: The Fight for Woman Suffrage (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982), p. 46.

Disillusionment with enfranchisement, ibid., pp. 47-48.

Flappers, in Mary Becker, Cynthia Bowman, and Morrison Torrey, Cases and Materials in Femiiniist Jurisprudence: Taking Women Seriously (Minneapolis: West, 1993), p. 16..

LWV and NWP, in Anne Firor Scott and Andrew MacKay Scott, One Half the People: The Fightfor Woman Suffrage (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1982), p. 49.

NWP as racist and classist, in hooks, op. cit., pp. 171-172.

Council for Interracial Cooperation, in Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex America (NewYork: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1984), p. 171.

YWCA, in Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, "A Common Bond of Womanhood? Buildingan Interracial Community in the Jim Crow South," in Nancy A. Hewitt, Women, Families, and Communities: Reading in American History, Vol. 2 From 1865 (Glenview, IL: Foresman/Little, Brown Higher Education, 1990), p. 107.

Black women joining their own groups and forming coalitions with Black men, in Giddings, op. cit., pp.  93, 166.

Nannie Burroughs, ibid., p. 210.

Disenfranchisement of Southern Blacks, in "Discontented Black Feminists: Predule and Postscript to the Passage of the Nineteenth Amendment," in Lois Scharf and Joan M. Jensen (eds.), Decades of Discontent: The Women's Movement, 1920-1940  (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983), p. 266.

Women's movement between 1920s and 1940s, ibid p. 268.

Renewed activism in late fifties and early sixties, Giddings, op. cit., pp. 261-324.

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Chapter 2

Childhood
From Schoolgirls to Homegirls

"Nikki-Rosa," in Nikki Giovanni, Black Feeling Black Talk Black Judgement (Detroit, MI: Broadside Press, 1973), cited in Toni Cade (ed.),

The Black Woman: An Anthology (New York: A Mentor Book, I970), p. 15.

Lynda Barry, The Good Times Are Killing Me (Seattle, WA: The Real Comet Press, 1988), p. 29.

Personal interview with Justine, Aug. 20, 1993.

Personal interview with Jane, Dec. 2, 1993.

Acquisition of racial identity, in M. A. Spencer, G. K. Brookins, and W. R. Allen, Beginnings. The Social and Affective Development of Black Children (Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1985).

Acquisition of gender identity, in Rhoda Unger and Mary Crawford, Women and Gender: A Feminist Perspective (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992), p. 28.

Girls being racially aware before boys, in Judith Porter, Black Child, White Child. The Development of Racial Attitudes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971), p. 25

Racial awareness development stages, in Marguerite AlejandroWright, "The Child's Conception of Racial Classification: A Socio-Cognitive Developmental Model." Spencer, op. cit.

Concrete thinkers, in Jean Piaget, The Child's Conception of the World (Totowa, NJ: Littlefield, Adams & Co., 1969).

Quote by Christine Kerwin from telephone interview, Sept. 14,1993.

"Subliminal awareness" stage, in Marguerite Alejandro-Wright, "The Child's Conception of Racial Classification: A Socio-Cognitive Developmental Model." Spencer, op. cit.

Children's lack of constancy, in Jean Piaget, op. cit.

Personal interview with Brooke L., Jan. 12, 1995.

Clarks' research, in J. A. Baldwin, "Theory and Research Concerning the Notion of Black Self-Hatred: A Review and Reinterpretation," Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 5 (1979), pp. 51-77.

Doll choices, in Albert Roberts, Kathleen Mosely, and Maureen Chamberlain, "Age Differences in Racial Self-identity of Young Black Girls, Psychological Reports, Vol. 37 (1975),  pp. 1263-1266.

Variation of Clarks' research in Darlene Powell-Hopson and Derek S. Hopson, "Implications of Doll Color Preferences Among Black Preschool Children and White Preschool Children, The Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 14 (1988), pp. 57-63.

Children and race-related terms, in Olivera Perkins and Karen R. Long, "Kids and Color: Prejudice Begins at Home," Cleveland Plain Dealer, national sect. p. 1A, Oct.29, 1993.

Telephone interview with Alana, April 20, 1993.

Nonphysical cues in racial classification, in Marguerite Alejandr Wright, "The Child's Conception of Racial Classification: A Socio-Cognitive Developmental Model," in Spencer, op. cit.

White children and awareness of race, in Porter, op. Cit., P. 25; in Judith Levine, "White Like Me: When Privilege Is Written on Your Skin," Ms. March-April I994, pp. 22-24.

Gender identity and differences in play, in Bernice Lott, Women's Themes and Variations in Gender Learning, 2nd ed. (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole Publishing, 1994), pp. 33-67.

Reference to Mattel's first Black doll, in telephone interview with Lisa McKendall, Corporate Relations Representative, Mattel Industries, Jan. 3, 1995.

Excerpt on Claudia's Aryan-looking doll, in Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye (New York: Pocket Books, I970), p. 22.

Dolls choices and behavior, in Joseph Hraba and Geoffrey Grant, "Black Is Beautiful: A reexamination of racial preference and identification," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 16 (1970), pp. 398-402

Margaret Spencer's research, in Frances Aboud, Children and Prejudice (New York: Basil Blackwell, Inc., 1988), p. 90.

Quote by Sara about daughter Jennifer in telephone interview, Nov. 15, 1994.

Telephone interview with a woman in her thirties, Sept. 26, 1993.

Personal interview with Kara, Nov. 25, 1993.

Personal interview with Nana, Nov. 22, 1993.

Black girls and rope-jumping, in Gregory Lewis, "Those Girls Really Know the Ropes," San Francisco Examiner, Feb. 27, 1994, p. E10.

Quote by Mattle about double-dutch rope-jumping from personal interview, Oct. 23, 1994.

Quote by Annie about double-dutch, June 14, 1994.

Children separating by gender, in Barrie Thorne, Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School (New Brunswick, NJ, 1993), p. 33.

Sex segregation in play, in Martin Patchen, Black-White Contact in Schools: Its Social and Academic Effects (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1982.

Propinquity in interracial friendships, in Maureen T. Halliman and Richard A. Williams, "Interracial Friendship Choices in Secondary Schools," American Sociological Review, Vol. 54 (1989), pp. 67-68.

Housing segregation myths, in Gary Tobin, Divided Neighborhood:  Changing Patterns of Racial Segregation (Newbury Park, CA: 1987), pp. 8-9.

"Census data," ibid, pp. 95-104.

Lynda Barry's play, in Steve Johnson, "It's Play Time: Cartoonist Lynda Barry's Quirky Creations Take a Dramatic Turn," Chicago Tribtine, mpo sect. (April 19, 1989), Zone C., p. 1

Edna and Bonna as best friends, in Lynda Barry, The Good Times Are Killing Me (Seattle, WA: The Real Comet Press, 1988), p. 34.

Unstructured time and other-race friends, in David DuBois and, Barton Hirsch, "School and Neighborhood Friendship Patterns of Black and Whites in Early Adolescence." Child Development, vol. 6i (iggo), pp. 524-536.

Personal interview with Tracey, Nov. 19, 1993.

Quote by Lynn from personal interview, July 10, I994.

Quote by Jessica from excerpt in Ann M. Martin, The Baby Sitters Club # 22 , (New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1989), p. 3.

Young Black girl's.self-esteem in predominantly White environments, in Allison Samuels, "Teaching That Black Is Beautiful: Females Suffer More in Mostly White Social Settings, Los Angeles Times, Sect. Orange County Life, Part N (May 10, 1990), p. 6.

Reference to story about girl named Sheronda from Debora M., telephone interview, Oct. 1, 1993.

Black and White children in naturally integrated schools, in E. Mavis Hetherington and Ross D. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 4th ed (NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993), p. 518; in Edward Zigler and Matia Stevenson, Children in a Changing World.: Development and Social Issues, 2nd ed. (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 1993), p. 558.

Children in schools where Black-White ratio is nearly equal, in Frances Aboud, Children And Prejudice (New York: Basil Blackwell, Inc., 1988), pp. 81-82.

Personal interview with Meggin and Shawn, July 24, 1993.

Being a girl and racial minority, in Janet Kistner, Amy Metzler, Deborah Gatlin, and Susan Risi, "Classroom Racial Proportions in Children's Peer Relations: Race and Gender Effects," Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 85 (1993), pp. 446-452; in "FSU study: Minority Rejection Tied to Gender, Not Race," United Press International, Regional News, Dist. Florida, May 20, 1993.

Quote by Marie, in Jacqueline Woodson, I Hadn't Meant to Tell You Thi's (New York: Delacorte Press, 1994), pp. 95-96.

Quote by Lydia from personal interview, July 12, 1994.

Personal interview, Aug. 20, 1993, with White girl who said she likes light-skinned Black girls better than dark-skinned girls.

Skin color prejudice, in Kathy Russell, Midge Wilson, and Ronald Hall, The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993).

Girls discrimifiating skin tones, in Cornelia Porter, "Social Reasons for Skin Tone Preferences of Black School-Age Children," American Journal Of OrthoPsychi'atry (Jan. 1991), pp. 149-154.

Nursery school girls and physical attractiveness, in Karen Dion "Young Children's Stereotyping of Facial Attractiveness," Developmental Psychology, vol. 9 (1973), pp. 183-188.

Telephone interview with Becky, April 30, 1993.

Dark-skinned girls and social rejection, in Morrison, op. cit.; in Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (New York: Bantam, 1969).

Telephone interview with Jerrilyn, Dec. 1993, p. 54 Biracial girls as bridges, In Christine Kerwin, "Racial Identity Development in Biracial Children of Black/White Racial Heritage," dissertation submitted to the Graduate School of Education, Fordham University, 1991, p. 126.

Biraciality, friendship, and adjustment, in Christine Kerwin, Joseph Ponterooto, Barbara Jackson, and Abigail Harris, "Racial Identity in Biracial Children: A Qualitative Investigation," Journal of Counseling Psychology, vol. 40 (1993), pp. 229-230; in Raymond Vagas "The Psychological and Social Functioning of Latency Age Black/White Biracial Girls from Intact Interracial Families," Dissertation Abstracts International, B 52/10 p. 5571, April 1992.

Telephone interview with transracially adopted, biracial woman named Katie, Sept. 27, 1993.

NABSW, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 100.

Elizabeth Bartholet, in Ruth Richman, "Unfair, Harmful?: Law Professor Questions Same-Race Adoption Policies," Chicago Tribune, Womannews, Sect. 6 (April 4, 1993), pp. I, II.

Biracially adopted children, in Allen Wise, "The Formation of Racial Identity in Black Children Adopted By White Parents," Dissertation submitted to the Wright Institute Graduate School (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1976).

Steve Asher's research, in E. Mavis Hetherington and Ross D. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993), p. 519.

Telephone interview with fifteen-year-old Black girl, Aug. 1993.

Barry, op. cit., p. 29.

Telephone interview with Claudia, Oct. 10, 1993,

Attack on two girls, in Michael Parente, "3 Teens Held in Racial Attack, Newsday, News section (Jan. I5, 1992), p. 26.

Black girls accused of acting White, in Olivera Perskin and Karen R. Long, "Kids and Color: Pre'udice Begins at Home," Cleveland Plain Dealer, National sect., (Nov. 29, 1992), p. 1A.

Race Monitors, in article by K. C. Compton, Gannett News Service, Sect. K. C. Compton (May 30,1989), 85th Story, Level I.

Black girls being heavier, in "Black Girls More Prone to Heart Disease Than Whites," Jet, Health sect. (Feb. 8, 1993), p. 28.

Race difference and puberty, in Marilyn Dunlop, "Girls Entering Puberty Earlier, Toronto Star Newspaper, Life sect., June 5, 1993, P. F2.

Early menarche, in J. Brooks-Gunn and A. C. Petersen (eds.), Girls at Puberty (New York: Plenum Press, 1983), cited in Rachel T. Hare-Mustin and Jeanne Marecek (eds.), Making a Difference: Psychology and the Constructi'on of Gender (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990). p. 108.

Quote by Meredith from personal interview, Aug. 1994.

White girls' loss of voice, in Lyn Mikel Brown and Carol Gilligan, Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's Psychology and Girls' Development (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992).

Loss of voice in White middle-class girls, in Peggy Orenstein, SchoolGirls: Young Women, Self-Esteem, and the Confidence Gap (New York: Doubleday, 1994), p. 159.

Children under age eighteen with single mothers, Table no. 8o, "Children Under 18 Years Old by Presence of Parents: 1970 to 1992,"Statistical Abstract of the United States, 113th ed. (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1993), p. 64.

Living in nontraditional family, in Shere Hite, "Bringing Democracy Home," Ms., March-April 1995, pp.54-61.

Race differences in girls' self-esteem, in Shortchanging Girls, Short-changing America: A Call to Action (Washington, DC: American Association of University Women, 1991), p. 27, in article about report by Janet Lelbs Dworkis, "Happy the Way She Is," Dallas Morning Neus, Today sect. (Nov. 25, 1992), p.5C; in E. L. Horwitz, "Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America," Outlook, Vol. 77, 85, no. 278.

Quote by Janie Victoria Ward in "Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America, American Association of University Women, (Washington, DC, 1991), p. 27-

"Those loud Black girls," in Signithia Fordham, "Those Loud Black Girls: (Black) Women, Silence, and Gender 'Passing,' in the Academy," Anthropology and Education Quarterly, vol. 24 (1993), pp. 3-32.

Quote by Fordham, ibid., p. 17.

Quote by Becca, in Orenstein, op. cit., p. 80.

Reference to April, ibid., p. 180.

School suspension rates in NYC, in Billy House, "School Suspensions Hit Black Hardest," Gannett News Service (March 16, 1993), 13th story, level I.

High school dropout rates, in "High School dropouts," Chicago Tribune, Nov. 24, 1991, Zone C, p. 1.

1994 SAT scores, in "Profiles of College-Bound Seniors: Gender and Ethnic Group Breakdown," Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ, from phone conversation with ETS marketing representative, Jan. 13, 1995.

Parental expectations of children's success, in Zena Smith Blau, Black ChiildrenlWhite Children: Competence, Socialization, and Social Structure (New York: The Free Press, 1981), p. 151.

Wexler school and quotes by teachers, in Janet Ward Schofield, Black and White in School. Trust, Tension or Tolerance? (New York: Teachers College Press, 1989), pp. 101-1O2.

Participation in multiethnic sports, in E. Mavis Heatherington and Ross D. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992), p. 259.

Wilson Sports survey, in Gerald Eskenazi, "Girls' Participation in Sports Improves," New York Times, sect. A, Sports Desk (June 8, 1988), p. 29, Col. I.

Quote by Willye White, ibid.

Gender differences in athletics versus physical appearance, in Barrie Thorne, Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School (New Brunswick, NJ: 1993), p. 155.

Excerpt, Shirley Abbott, Womenfolks: Growing Up Down South (New York.: Ticknor & Fields, 1983), p. 110

Homecoming court quota, in "Blacks Upset With Homecoming Court Quota," Associated Press, Domestic News (Oct. 17, 1986).

Alternating race of homecoming queen, in Darryl Fears, "Race Take Turns at Homecoming Title Unique Policy: Tennessee Educators Say

Alternating Queens Keeps the Peace at a Majority-Black School," Atlanta Constitution, national news (Feb. 7, 1992), sect. A, p. 3.

Black girls not being picked as cheerleaders, in Marie Nelson, "NAACP Cheers for Principal, Boos Coach," Washington Times (June 21, 1990).

Telephone interview with Patty, Nov. 25, 1993.

Michelle Kegley punched in the face, in Kevin Johnson "Racist Threat in Dress Dispute: Teens Harassed Over 'Hip-
Hop' " USA Today, Life sect., Dec. 14, 1993, p. 3A.

Telephone interview with Melissa, September, 1992.

Telephone interview with Canan, August 1993.

Telephone interview with Tara, Sept. 1993.

Personal interview with Donna, Oct. 1994.

Personal interview with Renee and Jennifer, Joliet, IL, in April 1993.

Sally at Wexler School, in Janet Ward Schofield, Black and White in School: Trust, Tension or Tolerance? (New York: Teachers College Press, 1989), p. 89.

Quote regarding growing up White in a predominantly Black school, in Tru Love, "What I Learned as a White Girl in a Black School", Ebony, vol. 48, Sept. 1993, pp. 44-50.

Personal interview with Lana, Nov. 22, 1993.

Personal interview with Sandra T., Nov. 22, 1993.

Telephone interview with Addie, Sept. 1994.

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Chapter 3

Surface Divisions:
Issues of Beauty and Style

Susan Brownmiller quote, in "Hair," Femininity (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1984), p. 73.

Lonnice Brittenum Bonner quote, in Good Hair: For Colored Girls Who've Considered Weaves When the Chemicals Became Too Ruff (New York: Crown Trade Paperbacks, 1991), p. 9.

Adrienne Rich quote, in "Disloyal to Civilization: Feminism, Racism, Gynephobia," Adrienne Rich, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence (NewYork:, Norton, 1979), pp. 298-299.

Light-skinned women around the world, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 56.

Pale skin in European women, ibid., p. 58.

Sun tan, in Susan Brownmiller, "Skin," Femininity (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1984), p. 136.

Mulatto hypothesis and slave jobs, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 18.

Quadroon balls, ibid.

Advantages of mulatto elite, ibid., pp. 24-32.

Colorism worse on women, ibid., p. 42.

Attempts to lighten skin color, Ibid., p. 50.

Successful men preferring lighter skin women, ibid., p. io8.

Excerpt about skin color and ashy skin, in Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye (New York: Washington Square Press, 1970), p. 71.

Excerpt about ashiness of skin, in Julia Boyd's In the Company of My Sisters (New York: Dutton Publishing, 1993) p.33.

Telephone interview with Liza, Sept. 1993.

Excerpt, White women and aging, in Connie May Fowler, Sugar Cage (New York: Washington Square Press, 1992),  p. 201-202.

Melanin reducing aging effects, in Karen Grigsby Bates, "Looks: A Change of Face, Cosmetic Surgery Poses Special Considerations for Black Women," Los Angeles Times, magazine sect., May 6, I990, P- 38.

Reference to L. Scott Caldwell from personal interview, conducted on April 23, 1993.

Race differences in teenage girls agreeing that women get more beautiful with age, in Michele Ingrassia, "The Body of the Beholder," Newsweek, April 24, I995, pp. 66-67; in Sheila Parker, Mimi Nichter, Mark Nichter, Nancy Vuckovic, Colette Sims, and Cheryl Ritenbaugh, "Body Image and Weight Concerns among African American and White Adolescent Females: Differences Which Make a Difference," Human Organization, vol. 54 (I995), PP. 103-114.

Race and gray hair, in Ellen Blum Barish, "Much Ado About Do's," Chicago Tribune, March 14, 1993, Sunday magazine sect., pp. 20-22.

Curly versus straight hair growing, in Lonnice Brittenum Bonner, Good Hair., For Colored Girls Who've Considered Weaves When the Chemicals Became Too Ruff (New York: Crown Trade Paperbacks, 1991), P. 17.

Good and bad hair, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., pp. 81-93.

Hair-straightening practices, ibid., pp. 43-47.

Personal interview with Dorothy, March 1993.

Reference to Caroline, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 84.

bell hooks quote regarding not loving hair in natural state, in bell hooks, "Straightening Our Hair" Z Magazine, Sept. 1988, pp. 33-37.

Phone interview with Hillary, Jan. 1993.

Phone interview with Theresa, in Jan. 1993.

Phone interview with Janie, Feb. 1993.

School Daze, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., pp. 90-91.

Susan Brownmiller reference, in "Hair" Femininity (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1984), p. 73.

Erma Bombeck reference, in Erma Bombeck, "Long Hair Doesn't Always Mean You're Tressed for Success," Dallas Morning News, Today sect., Feb. 3, 1993, p. 13C.

Gwendolyn Brooks reference, in Brooks, "Richardine," op. cit., p. 3.

Personal interview with Ida Hansome (Passion), Sept. 20, 1993.

Reference to Lonnice Brittenum Bonner, in Bonner, op. cit.

White feminists and long hair, in Katherine Viner, "What Long Hair Really Says About a Woman," The Guardian, Features sect., July 29, 1993, p. 14.

Phone interview with Diana, June 1993.

Reference to women, in Zhane Deborah Gregory, "Zhane: Here to Stay- Divas-in-Training Who Won't be Dismissed," Essence, Jan. 1994, p. 34.

Susan Brownmiller quote about cutting her hair, in Arlene Vigoda, "Restyling the Concept of Femininity," USA Today, News Sect., Mar. 12, 1990, p. 2.

Questions about dreadlocking, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 88.

Alice Walker quote about dreadlocking, in Alice Walker, "Oppressed Hair Puts a Ceiling on the Brain," Living by the Word (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovicb, 1988), pp. 69-74.

Cornrow braids and Bo Derek, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 89.

Personal interview with Siobhan, Feb. 1994.

Reference to Cheryl Tatum, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., pp. 132-133; Leah Y. Latimer, "Union Assails Policies on Cornrows: Some Hotel Rules Said to Discriminate Against Blacks" Washington Post, Jan. 19, 1988, Metro Sect., p. B3.

Reference to Pamela Mitchell, in Latimer, op. cit., p. B3.

"Renee Randall and cornrowed ponytail, in Jim Paul, "Cafeteria refuses to Rehire Worker With Do, Despite ACLU Complaint," Associated press, April 19, 1988, twelfth story, level 1.

Lawsuits about hair, in Mary Becker, Cynthia Bowman, and Morrison Torrey, Cases and Materials on Feminist Jurisprudence: Taking Women Seriously (St. Paul, MN: West Publising Co., 1994), pp. 784-787.

Black women managers with braided hair, in Leon B. Wynter, "Braided Hair Collides with Office Norms," Wall Street Journal, May 3, 1993, sect. B., col. 1.

Ethnic styles strike fear in managers, in Patricia McLaughlin "Is Corporate America Really Afraid of Braids?" Star Tribune, Oct- 27, 1993, Variety sect., p. 2E.

bell hooks job interview, in bell hooks, "Straightening Our Hair," Z Magazine, Sept. 1988, pp. 33-37.

Personal interview with Pamela, in Feb. 1994.

Personal interview with Rae, March 1994.

Phone interview with Lynette, Nov. 27, 1993.

Blond woman changing with burlesque troupe, in Corynne Corbett, "Dark Victory: Brunettes Battle for Their Place in the Sun," Elle, March 1992, pp. 272-274.

Stereotyping blondes, in Dennis Clayson and Micol Maughan, "Redheads and Blondes: Stereotypic Images," Psychological Reports, 59, pp. 811-816.

Dumb blond jokes, in Martha Sherrill, "Those Dumb Dumb-Blonde Jokes: They're Insensitive, Baseless, Tasteless. So Who's Laughing?" Washington Post, Style sect., Sept. 22, 1991, p. F1.

Blond hair softens face, in Mary Ellen Banashek, "Go Blond: Shades of Pale," Elle, June 1990, pp. 174, 177.

Personal intervienv with Erica, on Nov. 27, 1993.

Streaking hair blond, in Wendy Chapkis, Beauty Secrets: Women and the Politics of Appearance (Boston: South End Press, 1986), P. 59.

Reference to Cheryl Riley, in Rohan B. Preston, "Black and Blond," Chicago Tribune, Style sect., Feb. 24, 1993, pp. 10-13.

Long blond associated with prostitution, ibid, pp. 10-13.

Singers wearing blond wigs, in hooks, op. cit., pp. 33-37.

Color contact lenses and quote by Elsie Washington, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 114.

Costs and side effects of collagen, in Arlene Vigoda, "Sex Appeal," USA Today, June 15, 1993, Life sect., p. ID.

Phone interview with Tammi, Dec. 1992.

Personal interview with Sheila, Jan. 1993.

African woman creating ear piercing, in Saundra Sharp, Black Women for Beginners, (New York: Writers and Readers Publishing, 1993), p. 45.

Personal interview with Natalie, Jan., 1994.

Personal interview with Yvette, Feb., 1994.

Black woman advising others not to get a tattoo, in "Day One," ABC news magazine show airing Dec. 6, 1993.

Black women weighing more but with higher body satisfaction, in Steve B. Chandler, Doris A. Aboood, Dae Taek Lee, Mae Z. Cleveland, and Janice A. Daly, "Pathogenic Eating Attitudes and Behaviors and Body Dissatisfaction Differences Among Black and White College Students, Eating Disorders, vol. 2, 1994, pp. 319-328.

Race differences in body satisfaction and rates of dieting, in Michele Ingrassia, "The Body of the Beholder," Newsweek, April 24, 1995, pp. 66-67.

White women initiating more weight control in Denise Watson, "Go Figure: Black Women More Comfortable with Curves than White Women, Study Shows" The Virginia Pilot and Ledger Star, April 11,  1993, p. 11.

Race difference in cosmetic surgery, in "Trends in Hospital Procedures Performed on Black Patients and White Patients: 1980-1987," U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Provider Studies Research Note 20, April 1994, p. 39.

Black magazines not advertising weight loss products, in Roy Allen Roberts "Ethnicity, Body Image Dissatisfaction, and Eating Disorders: The Differential Impact of Norms of Attractiveness on Black and White Women (Cultural Norms)," from the University of Louisville, 1992, in Dissertation Abstracts International-B, vol. 53/09, March 1993, p. 4984.

Observations by Carolyn West about body image in paper entitled, "Developing an 'Oppositional Gaze': Black Women and Distorted Beauty Images," at the 18th Annual Women in Psychology Convention, Atlanta, March 11-14, 1993.

Saying about a bone, in Rachel Jones, Knight-Ridder Tribune, "Black and Beautiful: Women's Group Works at It: Detroit Exercisers Help One Another Find What It Takes," Arizona Republic, April 18, 1993, Special sect., p. HW5.

Madeleine Nelson, in Watson, op. cit., p. 11.

Reference to Yvonne Neil-Powell, ibid.

Thirty-four-year-old Black woman at work, in Deborah J. Bowen, Naomi Tomoyasu, and Ana Mari Cauce, "The Triple Threat: A Discussion of Gender, Class, and Race Differences in Weight," Women and Health, Vol. 17, 1991, pp. 123-143.

Reference to Jessie Putnam, in Watson, op. cit., p. 11.

Reference to Jocelyn in Becky Wangsgaard Thompson, in "'A Way Outa No Way': Eating Problems Among African-American, Latina, and White Women," Gender and Society, Vol. 6, 1992, pp. 546-561.

Kim Chernin and her quote, in Rosemary L. Bray, "Heavy Burden," Essence, Jan. 1992, p. 54.

Centerfolds and thinner Barble, in Mary Crawford and Rhoda Unger, Women and Gender (New York: McGraw Hill, 1993), p. 332.

Suzanne Henrick and girls' preoccupation with Kate Moss, in Louise Lague, Allison Lynn, Lois Armstrong, Vicki Sheff-Cahan, Gabrielle Saveri, and Laura Sanderson Healy, "How Thin Is Thin?" People, Sept. 20, 1993, pp. 74-80.

Robinne Lee story about her obsession with Kate Moss, in Robinne Lee, "The Model Thing," Tell, Feb. 1994, p.62.

Essence survey, in Linda Villarosa, "Dangerous Eating: The Results of Our Survey on Eating Disorders Show That Black Women Are at Risk," Essence, Jan. 1994, pp. 19-21, 87; Marilyn Elias, "Eating Disorders Do Affect Blacks, USA Today, Life sect., Oct. 25, 1993, p. DI.

Characteristics of women with eating disorders, in Maya Browne, "Dying to Be Thin," Essence, June 1993, pp. 86-87, 124, 126-127, 129.

Rates of anorexia and bulimia, in Jane E. Brody, "Healthy," New York Times, Sect. B., Pp 9; Maya Browne, "Dying to be Thin,"Essence, June 1993, pp. 86-87, 124, 126-127, 129.

Rates of obesity, in Portia Hawkins-Bond, "Information Please," Essence, Health Sect., Sept. 1993, p. 34; Rosemary L. Bray, "Heavy Burden," Essence, Jan. 1993, pp. 52, 54, 90.

Food as drug of choice, in Becky Wangsgaard Thompson, "'A Way Outa No Way': Eating Problems Among African-American, Latina, and White Women," Gender and Society, Vol. 6, 1992, pp. 546-561.

Black women and rates of hypertension and diabetes, in Leslie Laurence, "Her Health: Four-center Diet Study Offers Long-overdue Weight-loss Insights for African Americans," Atlanta Constitution, Dec. 28, 1993, Sect. C, p. 4.

Study on economic and social consequences of obesity, in Steven L. Gortmaker, Aviva Must, James M. Perrin, Arthur M. Sobol, and William H. Dietz, "Social and Economic Consequences of Overweight in Adolescenc and Young Adulthood," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, Sept. 30, 1993, pp. 1008-1037.

Race differences in leg shaving, in Susan A. Basow, "The Hairless Ideal: Women and Their Body Hair," Psychology of Women Quarterly, vol. 15, 1991, pp. 83-96.

Personal interview with Linda, Feb. 1993

E Style catalogue, in Marisol Bello, "Ethnic Strategy: Clothing Retailers are marketing to Minorities," St. Loulis Post-Dispatch, Style sect. Nov. 7, 1993, p. 4.

Black women's reactions to E Style, ibid.

Personal interview with Crystal, Dec. 1992.

Personal interview with Sondra, May 1993.

Black woman dressing sexy and seen as a whore, in Wendy Chapkis, Beauty Secrets: Women and the Politics of Appearance (Boston: South End Press) 1986, p. 59.

Phone interview with Alice, Nov. 1993.

Personal interview with Ellen, March 1, 1994.

Dressing in African-inspired fashions popular, in Nina Darnton, Sonya Vain, Howard Manly, and Shawn Doherty, "An Old Look is New Again," Newsweek, Life/Style sect., Oct. 16, 1989, p. 78.

Black women feeling pressure not conforming to " radical women of color," in Nancle Caraway, Segregated Sisterhood.- Racism and the Politics of American Feminism (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1991) p. 111

Reference to Marcia Gillespie, in Crawford and Unger, op. cit., p. 333.

Maya Angelou story, in Les Payne, "Seeing Whoopi for What She Is" Newsday, July 11, 1993, Currents sect., p. 3.

Poem about accepting one's beauty, in Ekua Omosupe, "In Magazines (I Found Specimens of the Beautiful)," Gloria Anzaldfla (ed.) Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspective by Feminists of Color (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation Books, 1990), p. 169.

Poem about never accepting one's beauty, in Marge Piercy, "Barbie Doll," Circles on the Water.- Selected Poems of Marge Piercy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), p. 92.

Rejecting masculinist aesthetic, in Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought:  Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment Perspectives on Gender, vol. 2 (New York: Routledge, 1990), p. 88.
 


_________________________________________________________

Chapter 4

Sexual Tensions

Carolyn M. Rodgers, "I Have Been Hungry," in How I Got Ovah: New and Selected Poems (Garden City: NJ: Anchor Books, Doubleday, 1976), p. 49.

 Gail Mathabane quote, in Maureen Downey, "Interracial Marriages Irk Black Women," Cleveland Plain Dealer, Feb. 23, 1993, Everywoman sect., p. C4.

Telephone interview with Jackie, Dec. 1993.

Interracial sexual jealousy, in Glynis Carr, "The Female World of Love and Racism: Interracial Friendship in U.S. Women's Literature, 1840- 1940-" A dissertation submitted to Ohio State University, 1989 (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1994), pp. 204-205.

White men sexualizing African women's nudity, in Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1968), p. 39.

Black women as animals, in Patricia Hill Collins, "Pornography and Black Women's Bodies," Making Violence Sexy (New York: Teachers College Press, 1993), p. 97.

Valuing natural rhythms, in Susan Taylor, "The Divine Feminine," Essence, July 1993, Spirit sect., p. 49.

The Hottentot Venus, in bell hooks, Black Looks: Race and Representation, (South End Press: Boston, 1992) p. 62; Saundra Sharp, Black Women: For Beginners (New York: Writers and Reader Publishing Company, 1993), p. 75; Collins, op. cit., pp. 98-99.

African woman's buttocks, in Elaine Brown, A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story (New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday, 1992), p. 93.

White women not being sexually free, in Carr, op. cit., pp. 204-205.

Jessie Daniel Ames comment, in Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, "The Mind That Burns.in Each Body: Women, Rape, and Racial Violence," in Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Collins (eds.), Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1992), p. 400.

Good girl, bad girl, in Kimberle Crenshaw, "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color," unpublished paper, cited in Mary Becker, Cynthia Bowman, and Morrison Torrey, Feminist Jurisprudence: Taking Women Seriously (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1994), p. 194.

Racial tensions as sexual insecurities, in John Down, "Black/White Dating," in Doris Wilkinson, Black Male/White Female Perspectives on Interracial Marriage and Courtship (Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing, 1975), p. 162.

Differing statistics, in P. A. Beicastro, "Sexual Behavior Differences Between Black and White Students," Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 21, 1985, pp. 56-57, cited in Spencer A. Rathus, Jeffrey S. Nevid, and Lois Fichner-Rathus, Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1993), pp. 256-257.

Gail E. Wyatt's research, in Walter Leavy, "Sex In Black America: Reality and Myth," Ebony, Aug. 1993, pp. 126-130; G. E. Wyatt, S. D. Peters, and D. Guthrie, "Kinsey Revisited: Part 1: Comparisons of the Sexual Socialization and Sexual Behavior of White Women Over 33 Years," Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 17 (3), pp. 201-209; G. E. Wyatt, S. D. Peters, and D. Guthrie, "Kinsey Revisited: Part 1: Comparisons of the Sexual Socialization and Sexual Behavior of Black Women Over 33 Years," Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 17 (4), pp. 289-332, cited in Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner-Rathus, Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity, pp. 256-257.

Robert Staples quote, in Leavy, op. cit., p. 130.

Teenage rates of intercourse, in "Trends in Pregnancies and Pregnancy Rates, United States, 1980-1988," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Centers for Disease Control/National Center for Health Statistics, Nov. 16, 1992; in F. Furstenberg, S. P. Morgan, K. A. Moore, and J. L. Peterson "Race Differences in the Timing of Sexual Intercourse," American Sociological Review, Vol. 52 (1987), pp. 511-518.

Wyatt's research, in Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner-Rathus, op. cit., p. 256.

Sexually active by age nineteen, in Jerry Schwartz ' "Teenage Girls Having Sex Earlier, Health Agency Says," Reuters, Feb. 1, 1990, AM Cycle.

Obese children, in Marilyn Dunlop, "Girls Entering Puberty Earlier," Toronto Star Newspaper, Life sect. (June 5, 1993), p. F2.

Early development and freedom, in Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Frank F. Purstenberg, Jr., "Adolescent Sexual Behavior," American Psychologist, Vol. 44 (Feb. 1989), pp. 249-157.

Early sexual development theory, in William F. Allman, "Sexual Chemistry: Science Takes a New Look at the Ancient Game of Love," U.S. News & World Report, July 19, 1993, pp. 557-563.

Race differences in making out, in Edward Smith and J. Richard Udry, "Coital and Non-coital Behaviors of White and Black Adolescents," American Journal of Public Health, vol. 75 (1985), pp. 1200-1203.

Technical virgin, in J. H. Gagnon and W. Simon, "The sexual scripting of oral genital contacts," Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 16, pp. 125.

Zimbabwean brother excerpt, in Tara Roberts, "Am I the Last Virgin?" Essence, June 1994, p. 80.

Missing discourse of desire, in Michelle Fine, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire," Lois Weis and Michelle Fine (eds.), Beyond Silenced Voices: Class, Race, and Gender in United States Schools (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993), pp. 75-99.

Justice Department figures, in Time, vol. 144, July 4, 1994, p. 12.

1987 Stanford Studies, in S. M. Dornbusch, R. T. Gross, P. D.Duncan, and P. L. Ritter, "Stanford studies of adolescence using the national health examination survey," cited in R. M. Lerner and T. T. Foch (eds.), Biological-Psychosocial Interactions in Early Adolescence (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1987), pp. 189-205, cited in Rhoda Unger and Mary Crawford Women and Gender: A Feminist Psychology (New York: McGraw Hill, 1992), p. 295.

Telephone interview with Derelle, March 1993.

Painful, first intercourse, in Brown, op. cit., p. 42.

Personal interview with Nana, Nov. 22, 1993.

Personal interview with Penelope, May 1994.

Societal reactions to pregnancies, in Rickie Solinger Wake Up Little Susie: Single Pregnancy and Race Before Roe v. Wade (New York: Routledge, 1992), pp. 24-25.

Black teenage girls and population explosion, ibid., pp. 24-25.

Black teenagers costing taxpayers, ibid., p. 35.

Guttmacher Institute study, in Sandra Gregg, "Area Teen Abortion Far Above U.S. Norm; Percentages Even Higher in Affluent Predominantly White Suburbs," Washington Post, April 21, 1987, First sect., p. A1.

Jewell Taylor Gibbs statement, in Joe Frolik, "White or Black, the Poor Suffer," Cleveland Plain Dealer, Nov. 28, 1993, National sect., p. 17A.

Contraception at first intercourse, in "Trends in Pregnancies and Pregnancy Rates, United States, 1980-1988," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Centers for Disease Control National Center for Health Statistics, Nov. 16, 1992.

Rochelle comment, in Deborah L. Tolman, "Speaking of Desire: Adolescent Girls, Sexuality, and A Question of Empowerment," unpublished paper presented at the 101st Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association at Toronto, Canada, Aug. 1993.

Tolman quote, ibid.

Differing abortion rates, in Table no. 111, "Abortions-Number, Rate, and Ratio, by Race: 1975-1992," Statistical Abstract of the United States, I114th ed., (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1994), p. 85.

Blacks having disproportionate adolescent births, in Diane Scott Jones and Sherry L. Turner, "The Impact of Adolescent Childbearing on Educational Attainment and Income of Black Females," Youth and Society, vol. 22, Sept. 1990, pp. 35-53.

Census figures of children born to unmarried women, from Table no. 100, "Births to Unmarried Women, by Race of Child and Age of  Mother: 1970 to 1991," Statistical Abstract of the United States, 114th ed., (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1994), p. 80; in Marian Wright Edelman, "The Black Family in America," in Evelyn C. White (ed.), The Black Women's Health Book: Speaking For Ourselves (Seattle, WA: Seal Press, 1990), p. 133.

Edelman point, in Evelyn C. White (ed.), The Black Women's Health Book (Seattle, WA: Seal Press, 1990), p. 133.

Catherine comment, ibid., p. 83.

Effects of teen pregnancy, in Scott-Jones and Turner, op. cit., pp. 35-53.

National Longitudinal Survey, ibid., pp. 35-53.

Deviance associated with White girls, in Jean Rhodes, Phylis Gingiss, and Peggy Smith, "Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol Use Among Pregnant African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents: The Influence of Peers, Sexual Partners, Family Members, and Mentors," Addictive Behaviors (in press, 1994).

Jean Rhodes quote in telephone interview, June 16, 1994.

Having a baby to enhance their self-esteem, in "What We Can Do About Child Pregnancies," New York Times, sect. A, March 13, 1991, p. 24.

Lack of sex education, in Schwartz, op. cit.

Suspicious of birth control, in Dorothy Gilliam, "Black Parents Flustered Talking to Teens about Sex," Washington Post, Nov. 26, 1979, Metro sect., p. C1.

Having babies young, in Laurie Becklund, "I Wanted Somebody to Love," Los Angeles Times, March 14, 1993, View sect., p. 1.

Loving v. Virginia, in Isabel Wilkerson, "Black-White Marriages Rise, but Couples Still Face Scorn," New York Times, Dec. 2, 1991) B6.

Barriers to integration falling, in Robert Staples, The World of Black Singles: Changng Patterns Of Male-Female Relations (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981), pp. 138-139.

Black-White marriages from 1970 to 1990, in Jack Kroll, Vern E. Smith, and Andrew Murr, "Spiking a Fever," Time Magazine, June 10, 1991, pp. 44-47.

90 percent of Blacks males, in Staples, op. cit., pp. 138-139.

White women and interracial sex, ibid., p. 143.

Gender differences in ratio of interracial marriages, in Jack Kroll, Vern E. Smith, and Andrew Murr, "Spiking a Fever," Time magazine, June 10, 1991, pp. 44-47; in J. Kroll, V. Smith, and A. Murr, "A black-white affair is the catalyst for Spike Lee's panoramic view of a culture in a color bind." Newsweek, June 10, 1991; in Laura Randolph, "Black Women/White Men: What's Goin' On?" Ebony, March 1989, p. 156.

Interracial marriage angering African American women, in Downey, op. cit., p. C4.

Race differences in getting married, in Cynthia Hanson, "Love in the 90s Means Commitment," Chicago Tribune, Womanews sect., April 11, 1993, p. 1.

Difficulty of African American women finding husband, in Susan Mitchell, "Changing Marriage Patterns Add Up to Changing Lifestyles," Boomer Report, March 15, 1993, Lifestyles sect., p. 7.

 Successful men marrying light-skinned women, in Melville Herskovits, The American Negro (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968), p. 64; in Elizabeth Mullins and Paul Sites, "The Origins of Contemporary Eminent Black Americans: A Three-Generation Analysis of Social Origin," American Sociological Review, 1984, pp. 672-685.

Interracial couples, in Lynn Norment, "Black Men/White Women: What's Behind the New Furor?" Ebony, Nov. 1994, pp. 44, 46, 48, 50.

Interracial dating during Freedom Summer, in Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter (New York: William Morrow, 1984), p. 301.

I Have Been Hungry, in Rodgers, op. cit., p. 128.

Gail Mathabane quote, in Downey, op. cit., p. C4.

Telephone interview with anonymous White women about Black women dating White men, April 1993.

Personal interview with Lynn, May 12, 1994.

Personal interview with middle-aged White woman dating Black man named Stanley, Feb. 12, 1994.

Personal interview with White woman named Deborah, April 1993.

Personal interview with White woman named Deana, April 1994.

Comment by Black friend, in Ranjeet Singh, "Interracial Relationships," unpublished paper, March 11, 1994.

Excerpt by Bebe Moore Campbell, in "Hers; Brothers and Sisters," New York Times, Aug. 23, 1992, sect. 6, p. 18.

Race and physical attractiveness, in Bernard Murstein, Joseph Merighi, and Thomas E. Malloy, "Physical Attractiveness and Exchange Theory in Interracial Dating," The Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 129, 1989, pp. 325-334.

Dating preferences, in Master's thesis, Camille Baughn, Psychology Department, DePaul University, Chicago, IL, 1993; in Midge Wilson, "Race, Skin Color, and Physical Attractiveness: The Politics of Interracial Dating," invited Paper, Midwestern Psychological Association, May 5, 1995.

Personal interview with Nancy B., Dec. 15, 1993.

Personal interview with Sonya, May 12, 1994.

Personal interview with Jamillah, Feb. 1994.

Darrell Dawsey quote, in Darrell Dawsey, "I Don't Date White Women, and Here's Why," Gannett News Service, Oct. 28, 1992, 150th story, Level 1.

Prom incident, in "Race Remarks Prompt Suspension: Principal Tried to Ban Interracial Dating at Prom," Chicago Tribune, March 15, 1994,sect. 1, p. 12.

Fury of Black women, in Audre Lorde, Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (Trumansburg, NY: Crossing Press, 1984), pp. 47-48.

Black lesbian pressures, in D. Merilee Clunis and G. Dorsey Green, Lesbian Couples: Creating Healthy Relationships for the '90s (Seattle: Seal Press, 1993), p. 138.

Poetry excerpt, in Daienya, "does it matter if she's white?" in Jan Hardy (ed.), SisterlStranger: Lesbians Loving Across the Lines (Pittsburgh: Sidewalk Revolution Press, 1993), pp. 118-121.

Personal interview with Rhonda, May 1993.

Brenda Verner statement, in Brenda Verner, "African Womanism-Why Feminism Has Failed to Lure Black Women," from a 1993 packet of promotional material.

Personal interview with Mary Morton, Nov. 16, 1991.

White women wondering why, in Clunis and Green, op. cit., p. 140.

Telephone interview with Shawna, Dec. 1993.

Cheryl Clarke quote, in Cheryl Clarke, "Lesbianism, An Act of Resistance," Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua (eds.), The Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (New York: Kitchen Table:  Women of Color Press, 1983), p. 135.

"Ethnic chasers," in Clunis and Green, op. cit., p. 140.

Telephone interview with Marilyn in June, 1992.

Kim Hall excerpt, in "Learning to Touch Honestly: A White Lesbian's Struggle With Racism," in Jeffner Allen (ed.), Lesbian Philosophies and Cultures (New York: SUNY Press, I990), pp. 317-326.

Telephone interview with Patty K., Feb.1993.

Quote by bell hooks in Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston: South End Press, 1989), p. 125.

Personal interview with Cynthia W., Jan. 13, 1994.

Black Lesbian Support Group, in "The Black Lesbian Support," Essence, April 1992.

Cleveland's Sistahparty, in Nick Charles, "A Struggle for Dignity: Cleveland's Gay Community Joins an Emerging Fight for Rights," Cleveland Plain Dealer, Living sect., Nov. 29, 1992, p. 1G.

Lesbians of color, in Gloria 1. Joseph and Jill Lewis, Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives (Boston: South End Press, 1981), p. 36.

Personal interview with Jennifer, June 1992.

Telephone interview with Lisa P., May 16, 1992.

Venus Medina statement, in Alvin Poussaint, "An Honest Look at Black Gays and Lesbians," Ebony, Sept. 1990, p. 131.

Excerpt by Ann Allen Shockley from Loving Her: A Novel (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1974), p. 31.

Barbara Smith regarding heterosexual privilege, in Smith and  Smith, op. cit., p. 193.

Personal interview with Bernita, in June I993.

Frances Cress Welsing, in Gloria 1. Joseph and Jill Lewis, Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives (Boston: South End Press, 1981), p. 37.

Homosexuality as genocide, ibid., p. 37.

Barbara Smith on lesbianism and feminism, in Barbara Smith and Beverly Smith, "Across The Kitchen Table: A Sister-to-Sister Dialogue," in Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua (eds.), The Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (New York: Kitchen Table: Women of  Color Press, 1983), p. 125.

Homophobia among Blacks, in Cheryl Clarke, "The Failure to Transform: Homophobia in the Black Community," in Barbara Smith (ed.), Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology (New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1983), p. 205.

Comment by Barbara Smith, in Jewelle L. Gomez and Barbara Smith, "Taking the Home Out of Homophobla: Black Lesbian Health," in Evelyn C. White (ed.), The Black Women's Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves (Seattle: Seal Press, 1990), p. 207.

Comment by Sarah, in Norma Garcia, Cheryl Kennedy, Sarah F. Pearlman, and Julia Perez, "The Impact of Race and Culture Differences: Challenges to Intimacy in Lesbian Relationships," in Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective, Lesbian Psychologies: Explorations and Challenges (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), p. 153.

Personal interview with Amy, Dec. I993.

Personal interview with JoAnn, Jan. 13, 1994.

Excerpt from Shockley, op. cit., p. 100.

Group versus individual identities, in Clunis and Green, op. cit., pp. 138-139.

Black women's views on sexual assault, in Mary Becker, Cynthia Bowman, and Morrison Torrey, Cases and Materials on Feminist Jurisprudence: Taking Women Seriously (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1994), p. 229.

Rape and legal recourse, ibid., p. 121.

Rape and lynching, in Michele Wallace, Black Macho and the Myth of the Supertvoman (New York: Verso, 1991) pp. 119-120.

White women and lynching, ibid., p. 230.

Black women and criminal justice system, in Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (New York: Routledge, 1990), p. 178.

Telephone interview with Mary Kay, May 1993.

Telephone interview with K.K., Jan. 1994.

Court case and Black teenage girl, in Kimberle Crenshaw, "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color," unpublished paper, P. 27, cited in Mary Becker, Cynthia Bowman, and Morrison Torrey, Feminist Jurisprudence: Taking Women Seriously (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1994), p. 194.

Race differences in prison terms, ibid., p. 194.

White man and death penalty, in Joseph and Lewis, op. cit., p. 278.

Rapes being interracial, in Caroline Wolf Harlow, Female Victims of Violent Crimes, U.S. Department of Justice, NCJ-126826, Jan. 1991.

Media headlines, in Marcia Ann Gillespie, "In the Matter of Rape," Ms., Jan. I993, p. 60.

Central Park "wilding" incident, in Crenshaw, op. cit., p. 194.

Dilemma of Black women, ibid., p. 194.

Conflict in women's studies meeting, from anonymous interview, April 1993 and Nov. 1993.

Race differences in rape, in Joseph and Lewis, op. cit., p. 278; in Caroline Wolf Harlow, Female Victims of Violent Crimes, U.S. Department of Justice, NCJ-126826, Jan. 1991.

Audre Lorde quote, in Becker, Bowman, and Torrey, op. cit., p. 535.

Quote by Gillespie, in Marcia Gillespie, "What's Good for the  Race?" Ms. (Jan.-Feb. 1993), p. 81, cited in Mariah Burton Nelson, The Stronger Women Get, the More Men Love Football. Sexism and the American Culture of Sports (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994), p. 143.

Black domestic workers being sexually harassed, in Collins, op. cit., p. 176.

0. J. Simpson case, in Jill Smolowe, "Race and the 0. J. Case," Time, vol. 144, Aug. 1, 1994, pp. 24-26.

Percent of prostitutes, (115 Spring St, NY 10012: The Women's Action Coalition, 1993), p. 42, and in "Prostitutes Say They are AIDS Scapegoats," UPI, San Francisco, June 30, 1988.

Quote by Blanca in Lynn Rousseau, "An Interview With A Friend," unpublished paper, March 11, 1994.

Race differences in acts women perform in pornographic videos, in Gloria Cowan and Robin R. Campbell, "Racism and Sexism in Interracial Pornography: A Content Analysis," Psychology of Women Quarterly, vol. 18 (1994), pp. 323-338; in Gloria Cowan, "New Feminist Research on the Harm of Pornography," panel presentation at the Speech, Equality, and  Harm: Feminist Legal Perspectives on Pornography and Hate Propaganda Conference, Chicago, March 5-7, 1993.

Let Me Tell 'Ya 'Bout Black Chicks, in Cowan and Campbell, op. cit., pp. 323-338.

Alice Walker quote, in Alice Walker, "Coming Apart," You Can't Keep a Good Woman Down (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981), p. 52.

   _______________________________________________________

Chapter 5

Making Friends
Relationships on the Campus, in the Workplace, and Beyond

Adrienne Rich quote, in "Disloyal to Civilization: Feminism, Racism, Gynephobla," Lies, Secrets, and Silences (New York: W. W. Norton, 1986), p. 300.

Audre Lorde quote, in "The Uses of Anger: Women Responding to Racism," Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (Trumansburg, NY: Crossing Press, 1984), pp.125-126.

Women and Blacks going to college, in Mary Frank Fox, "Women and Higher Education: Gender Differences in the Status of Students and Scholars," in Jo Freeman (ed.), Women: A Feminist Perspective, 4th ed. (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1989), pp. 217-235.

Brown v. Board of Education and Court ruling, in Norman Dorsen, "Civil Rights and Civil Liberties," Encarda (Microsoft Corporation, 1993).

College housing placement policies at most colleges today, from telephone interview conducted with Ladonna Sanders, former residence hall director at DePaul University, Chicago, on July 26, I994.

Multiculturalism lectures during orientation week, ibid.

Gender differences in avoiding conflict, in Deborah Tannen, You Just Don't Understand:  Women and Men in Conversation (New York: Ballantine Books, 1990), pp. 163.

Sports central to improved race relations for boys not girls, in Richard L. Zweigenhaft and G. William Domhoff, Blacks in the White Establishment?: A Study of Race and Class in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991), p.50; in E. Mavis Hetherington and Ross D. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 4th ed. (New York: McGrawHill, Inc., 1993), p. 518.

Quote by Ladonna Sanders from telephone interview, July 16, 1994.

Quote by Tara from telephone interview, Jan. 1994.

Reference to LaRay from telephone interview, Nov. I993.

Quote by Brigette from telephone interview, July I993.

Reference to Ladonna Sanders from telephone interview, July 26, 1994.

Black female student's brother with a beeper, ibid.

Reference to Mokita from telephone interview, Aug. 3, 1994.

Barbara Smith quote about "downward mobility," in Barbara Smith and Beverly Smith, "Across the Kitchen Table: A Sister-to-Sister  Dialogue," in Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua (eds.), This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (New York: Kitche Table: Women of Color Press, 1983), p. 113.

White women more accepting of academic humiliation, and quote about Blacks having to defy them, in bell hooks, Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston: South End Press, 1989), pp. 58-59.

Race differences in admission standards and SAT scores, in Walter E. Williams, "Campus Racism," in Susan F. Feiner (ed.), Race and Gender in the American Fconomy: Views From Across the Spectrum (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994), pp. 158-161.

Race differences in dropout rates, in Claude M. Steele, "Race and the Schooling of Black Americans," in Feiner, op. cit., pp. I72

Story of Elaine and Wendy from telephone interview with Elaine, Dec. 1993.

Race differences in women's drinking and drug taking, in Harry Avis, Drugs and Life (Madison, WI: WCB Brown and Benchmark, 1993) p. 143.

Telephone interview with Lynda, Feb. 13, I994.

Personal interview with Lyn, May 12, 1994.

Personal interview with Tina S., Dec. 7, I993.

Quote by Mokita from telephone interview, Aug- 3, 1994.

Quote by African American woman advocating cross-race friendships by Raquel W., from telephone interview, June II, 1994.

Quote by Page A. from personal Interview, July 27, 1994.

Comment by Audrey about her White friend Jo, in Audrey Edwards, "Sisters Under the Skin," New York Times Magazine, Sept. 19, 1993, p. 35.

Quote by Lynn R. from personal interview, Sept. 20, 1994.

Quote by Sandi from telephone interview, Aug. 15, 1994.

Additional quote by White female student from interview, July 1994.

Anonymous quote by White female former dean, telephone interview, June 1994.

 Cultural private property and Caraway quote, in Nancie Caraway, Segregated Sisterhood. Racism and the Politics of American Feminism (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991), p. 114.

Reference to African American female director of Northwestern University, telephone interview with Carla Sperlock-Evens, Oct. 1993.

Double standard in women's studies, in Lorde, op. cit., pp. 117-118.

Quote, in bell hooks, Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston: South End Press, 1989), p. 61.

Rates of women working based on race and marital status, in Julianne Malveaux and Phyllis Wallace, "Minority Women in the Workplace," in Karen S. Koziara, Michael H. Moskow, and Lucretia D. Tanner (eds.), Working Women: Past, Present, Future (Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., 1987), pp. 265-298, and from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Apr. 1986, Table i, cited in Sara E. Rix (ed.), The American Woman 1990-1991: A Status Report (New York: Norton, 1990), Table II, p. 373.

White women refusing to work beside Black women, in Gloria I. Joseph and Jill Lewis, Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives (Boston: South End Press, 1981), pp. 27-28.

Black and White women in tobacco plants, in Beverly W. Jones, "Race, Sex, and Class: Black Female Tobacco Workers in Durham, North Carolina, 1920-1940, and the Development of Female Consciousness," Feminist Studies, vol. 10 (Fall 1984), pp. 441-451.

Race segregation of jobs done by women, in Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1984), pp. 143-144.

Quote in Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God (Boston: Lippincott, I937; reprint, Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett, 1965), p. 16.

Salaries for White and Black nurses, in Darlene Clark Hine, Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession 1890-1950 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989), p. 93.

Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Acts, in Alice Abel Kemp, Women's Work: Degraded and Devalued (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1994), pp. 308-310.

Statistics on women in pink-collar jobs, in V. G. Nieva and B. A. Gutek, Women and Work: A Psychological Perspective (New York: Academic Press, 1981).

Statistics on weekly earnings, U.S. Bureau of the Census from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Jan. 1989, Table 61, cited in Sara E. Rix (ed.), The American Woman 1990-91: A Status Report (New York: Norton, 1990), Figure I, p. 391.

Shifts in White versus Black women's employment, in Vivian V. Gordon, Black Women, Feminism, and Black Liberation: Which Way? (Chicago: Third World Press, 1985), p. 39.

Saying about careers versus jobs, in Julia Boyd In the Company of My Sisters (New York: Dutton, 1993), p. 115.

Real liberation for Black women, in Benjamin Barber, Liberating Feminism (New York: Dell Publishing, 1975), p. 51.

White women advancing at expense of Blacks, in Jacqueline Grant, Black Women's Christ and Black Women's Jesus: Feminist Christology and Womanist Response (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), p. 98.

Korn/Ferry International survey, in Ann M. Morrison and Mary Ann Von Glinow, "Women and Minorities in Management," American Psychologist, vol. 45 (Feb. 1990), pp. 200-209.

"Glass ceiling," in Alice Abel Kemp, op. cit., pp. 220-221.

Stories of Sandrya and Rebecca from telephone interviews, March 1993.

Reference to Mallory and Esther in Bebe Moore Campbell, Brothers and Sisters (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1994).

Quote by Esther, ibid., p. 306.

Statistics on earning potential of Black female college graduates, WAC Stats (New York: Women's Action Coalition, 1993), p. 50.

Interview research with Black women about White women and quote by one, in Letha A. Lee, "Tensions Between Black Women and White Women: A Study," Affilia, vol. 4 (1989), pp. 31-45.

White female managers need to offset passive image, Althea Smith and Abigail J. Stewart, "Approaches to Studying Racism and Sexism in Black Women's Lives," Journal of Social Issues, vol. 39 (1983), pp. 1-15.

Black female managers penalized for being aggressive, in Lee, op.cit., pp. 31-45.

Stereotypes of Black women in workplace, in Janet R. Brice-Baker and Beverly Greene, "Quadruple Jeopardy: Black, Female, Professional, and in Charge," paper presented at the 18th annual Women in Psychology convention, Atlanta, March 11-14, 1993.

Black women executives penalized if not nurturing, in Rhetaugh Dumas, "Dilemmas of Black Females in Leadership," in La Frances Rodgers-Rose (ed.), The Black Woman (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1980), pp. 203-215.

Audrey Murrell's research refuting notion that Black women have advantage in their "double minority" status, in Steve Creedy, " 'Double Minority' No Help for Black Women," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, sect. D., Aug. 8, 1993, p. 15.

Statistics of managerial/executive positions, in Kemp, op. cit. p. 212.

Race differences in group versus individual identities, in D. Merilee Clunis and G. Dorsey Green, Lesbian Couples: Creating Healthy Relationships for the '90s (Seattle: Seal Press, 1993), pp. 138-139.

Story and quote by Black lawyer, in Ellis Cose, The Rage of a Privileged Class (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 60.

Quote by Esther about why affirmative action is necessary, in Campbell, op. cit., p. 307.

Reference to Raquel, telephone interview, on June 11, 1994.

Personal interview with Karen, March 16, 1994.

Personal interview with Maureen, Nov. 22, 1993.

Reference to research on self-protective strategies in Jennifer Crocker and Brenda Major, "Social Stigma and Self-Esteem: The Self-Protective Properties of Stigma," Psychological Review, vol. 96 (1989), pp. 608-630.

Reference to White women receiving more affirmative action contracts, in Francine Knowles, "White Women Tally Biggest Gains in Contracts," Chicago Sun Times, March 26, 1995, Sunday news sect. p. 10.

Reference to educational difference between White and Black women in workplace, in Aida Hurtado, "Relating to Privilege: Seduction and Rejection in the Subordination of White Women and Women of Color," Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 14 (1989), pp. 833 -855.

Statistic of Black clerical workers, in Julianne Malveaux, "Current Economic Trends and Black Feminist Consciousness," The Black Scholar, vol. 16, March-April 1985, pp. 26-31.

Percent of Black women who are registered nurses vs. nurses aides, in Kemp, op. cit., Table 7.4 on p. 219, and Table 7.7 on p. 245.

Telephone interview with Ann L., May 1994.

Personal interview with Anne Z., Aug. 20, 1994.

Language skills necessary for pink-collar employment, in Virginia Shapiro, Women in American Society, 3rd ed. (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing, 1994), pp. 296-297.

Personal interview with Darlene, May 1993.

Black versus White modes of negotiating conflict, in Thomas Kochman, Black and White Styles in Conflict (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), p. 18.

Race differences among middle-class women in dispelling disagreements, in Stella Ting-Toomey, "Conflict Communication Styles in Black and White Subjective Cultures," in Young Yuri Kim (ed.), Interethnic Communication: Current Research (Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1986), International and Intercultural Communication Annual, vol. 10, pp. 75-88.

Quote by Sharon A. from telephone interview, Aug. 26, 1994.

Quote by Nancy B. from personal interview, Dec. 15, 1993.

Personal interview with Trish, Feb. 1992.

Quote by Karen P. from personal interview, April 1994.

White women acting like they deserve a medal for teaching at predominantly Black school in April Sinclair, Coffee Will Make You Black (New York: Hyperion, 1994), p. 175.

Quote by Jackie R. from personal interview, July 31, 1994.

Reference to Frieda G. from telephone interview, Sept. 5, 1994.

Two sayings about marshmallows and chocolate chips, in Laura B. Randolph, "Reverse Integration," Ebony, Jan. 1994, pp. 68-70, 72.

Quotes by Louise Lindholm and Carole Borgreen, ibid.

Quote by Robin P. from personal interview, Jan. 1994.

Quote by Shirley from telephone interview, conducted with her daughter Lavinia, in Nov. 1994.

Workplace as where adults make new friends, in Rocky Mountain News, Spotlight sect., July 1, 1993, p. 7C.

Quote by White secretary named Lucy from personal interview, Sept. 1994.

Quote by Black woman named Keisha from personal interview, March 1994.

Quote by anonymous Black accountant from personal interview, Aug. 1994.

Quote by Raquel from telephone interview, June 11, 1994.

Quote in Julia Boyd, "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Feminist Therapy: Keys to Power," in Evelyn C. White (ed.), The Black Women's Health Book: Speaking to Ourselves (Seattle, WA: Seal Press, 1990), pp. 226-234.

Quote by anonymous Black woman complaining about having to escort White girlfriend, from personal interview, March 1994.

Story and quote by Jill from telephone interview, March 1994.

Story and quote by Cheryl from personal interview, June 17, 1994.

Telephone interview with Crystal, June 1993.

Telephone interview conducted with LaTisha, April 1994.

Quote by Lois from personal interview, Dec. 2, 1993.

Friendship between Peggy and Betty Ann, in Bebe Moore Campbell, "Friendship in Black and White: Beyond the Some of My Best Friends Are . . .' Syndrome," Ms., Aug. 1983, pp. 44-46, 95.

Reference to Deana from personal interview, April 1994.

Telephone interview with Carla, May 1993.

TRIOS model, in James M.. Jones, "Racism: A Cultural Analysis of the Problem," in J. F. Dovidio and S. L. Gaertner (eds.), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism (New York: Academic Press, 1986), pp. 279-311.

Quote by Heather from personal interview, Sept. 15, 1994.

Telephone interview with Karla, May 1993.

Statistics about cross-race friendships and effect on attitudes, in Mary R. Jackman and Marie Crane, "'Some of My Best Friends Are Black. . . '": Interracial Friendship and Whites' Racial Attitudes," Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 50 (1986), pp. 459-486.

Interracial friendship and quote, in Althea Smith and Stephanie Nickerson, "Women's Interracial Friendships," Women's Studies Quarterly, vol. XIV (Spring-Summer 1986), pp. 15-16.

_______________________________________________________

Chapter 6

Social Activism
Shared Agendas and Uneasy Alliances

Audre Lorde quote, in Sister Outsider (Trumansburg, NY: Crossing Press, 1984), p. 60.

Robin Morgan quote from keynote address at the 18th Annual Women in.Psychology Convention, Atlanta, March 11-14, 1993.

Sue Purrington of Chicago NOW, in Kevin Johnson, "Illinoi Democrat Is Overnight Sensation," USA Today, News section, March 19 1991, p. 5A.

Republican women voting for Braun, in Jon Margolis, "Upsets in Illinois Give Nation Food for Thought," Chicago Tribune, News sect., March 18, 1992, p. 1.

Personal interview with Molly, March I7, 1993.

Rosa Parks discussion, in Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter.The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1984), pp. 261-265.

Ella Baker and the SCLC discussion, in Paula Giddings, op. cit., pp. 268-269.

Four students from North Carolina A & T, in Mary King, Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement (New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1987), p. 33.

Sit-in movement, in Giddings, op. cit., pp. 273-274.

Birth of SNCC, ibid., pp. 274-275.

Diane Nash and Ruby Smith in SNCC, ibid., p. 278-279.

The "mama," in Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the Netv Left (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, I979) p. 51.

Quote by Dorothy Burlage, ibid., p. 51.

White women in field, ibid., p. 69.

White women being good press, ibid., p. 44.

White women sleeping with Black men, ibid., pp. 78-79.

Black men's reactions to White women, in Giddings, op. cit., p.301; In Evans, op. cit., p. 79.

Reaction of White and Black female staff members to White female volunteers, in Mary King, op. cit., p. 464.

Quote, in Evans, op. cit., p. 81.

SNCC in state of disarray, in King, op. cit., pp. 437-438.

Casey Hayden and Mary King, ibid., pp. 36, 42.

Excerpt from King and Hayden's position paper, ibid., p. 445.

Rosa Park's denial of rights due to Blackness not sex, in Gloria 1. Joseph and Jill Lewis, Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives (Boston: South End Press, 1981), pp. 32-33.

Black women believing only White women relegated to minor responsibilities in SNCC, in Giddings, op. cit., p. 302.

Stokely Carmichael, King, op. cit., p. 452

Manifesto paper, ibid., pp. 456-457.

Lack of response from Black women to manifesto, ibid., p. 467.

Values changing from feminine to masculine in Civil Rights Movement, in Evans, op. cit., p. 200.

Black power and rising macho attitudes in SNCC, in Giddings, op. cit., pp. 315-316.

Angela Davis quote, ibid., p. 316.

Complaints of Kathleen Cleaver, ibid., pp. 316-317.

Black nationalist pamphlet in Combahee River Collective, "A Black Feminist Statement" in Barbara Smith (ed.), Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology (New York: Kitchen Table, Women of Color Press, 1983), p. 278.

Biological determinism applied to women, in Barbara Smith, "Some Home Truths on the Contemporary Black Feminist Movement," The Black Scholar, vol. i6, (March-April 1985), p. 5.

Women giving up reproductive rights at 1976 Black Power Conference, in Giddings, op. cit., pp. 318-319.

Regina Jennings, in Regina Jennings, "A Panther Remembers" Essence, Feb. 1991, p. I22.

Barbara Sizemore, in Giddings, op. cit., p. 318.

Mark Rudd and chicklib classes, in Evans, op. cit., p. 201.

Sexist treatment of SDS White woman, in Giddings, op. cit., p. 303; in Joseph and Lewis, p. 53.

Sex as protected category in Civil Rights Act and establishment of NOW, in Giddings, op. cit., p.  300.

Founding of NOW, ibid.

Sickness without a name, in Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (New York: Norton, 1963), cited in Bernice Lott, Women's Lives: Themes and Variations in Gender Learning, 2nd ed. (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1994), p. 11.

Working mothers, Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, cited in Giddings, op. cit., p. 299.

Black women having little sense of contradiction in their desire to model Victorian womanhood, in Michele Wallace, Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman (New York: Verso Press, 1991), p. 162.

CR groups and White women discovering sisterhood and emerging from silence, in Joseph and Lewis, op. cit., p. 62-66.

Black women objecting to "woman as slave" analogy, in bell hooks, Ain't I a Woman (Boston: South End Press, 1981), pp. 141-142.

White women not realizing they are oppressed until later in life, Barbara Smith "Some Home Truths on the Contemporary Black Feminist Movement," pp. 4-13.

Survival versus fulfillment, Brenda Eichelberger, "Voices of Black Feminism," Quest: A Feminist Quarterly, vol. III (Spring), pp. 16-28.

White culture not encouraging sisterhood, in Joseph and Lewis, p. 66

Beauty parlor as space for consciousness raising for Black women, in bell hooks, "Straightening Our Hair," Z Magazine, Sept. 1988, pp. 33-37

Poem, Willie M. Coleman, "Among Things That Used to Be," in Barbara Smith (ed.), Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology, pp. 221-222.

Failure of Black CR groups, in Michele Wallace, Invisibility Blues: From Pop to Theory (London: Verso Press, 1990), p. 24.

White women feeling and Black women doing, Audre Lorde, Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches, p. 171.

Protest at 1968 all-White Miss America pageant and Flo Kennedy, in Marcia Cohen, The Sisterhood:  The True Story of the Women Who Changed the World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988), pp. 150-152.

Handful of Black women in NOW, in Giddings, op. cit., p. 346.

Black maid at Betty Friedan's apartment, in Marcia Cohen, op. cit., p. 188.

Black women receiving approval from Black men for saying that they hated White women, in Wallace, op. cit., p. 23.

Brownmiller quote, in Cohen, op. cit., p. 216.

Friedan and women's strike for equality march, ibid., p. 273.

Third World Women's Alliance and Frances Beal, in Giddings, op. cit., p. 305.

Toni Morrison, New York Times Magazine, and her quote in Marcia Cohen, The Sisterhood, pp. 315-316

National Women's Political Caucus, in Cohen, op. cit., p. 315.

National Black Feminist Organization, in Joseph and Lewis, op. cit., pp.33-34.

Norton quote, in Giddings, op. cit., p. 344.
pp. 201-202 Poem, Audre Lorde, "Who Said It Was Simple," From a Land Where Other People Live (Detroit: Broadside Press, 1973), cited in Joseph and Lewis, op. cit., p. 39.

Louis Harris poll, in bell hooks, Ain't I A Woman: Black Women and Feminism, p. 148.

1980 study, in Willa Mae Hemmons, "The Women's Liberation Movement: Understanding Black Women's Attitudes," in LaFrances Rodgers-Rose, The Black Woman (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1980), pp. 285-299.

Hernandez's growing discontent with NOW, In Giddings, op. cit., pp. 346-347.

Sharon Parker, ibid., p. 346.

"Failure of ERA due to racism in NOW," ibid., p. 347.

Emergence of women's studies, in Sally Miller Gearhart, "If the
Mortarboard Fits . . . Radical Feminism in Academia," in Charlotte Bunch and Sandra Pollack (eds.), Learning Our Way: Essays in Feminist Education (Trumansburg, NY: Cross Press, 1983), pp. 2-3.

Black women annoyed at White women claiming male supremacy was root of oppression, Giddings, op. cit., p. 304; in bell hooks, Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1989), p. 19.

Absence of women in Black studies classes and Blacks in women's studies classes, Johnnetta B. Cole, Conversations: Straight Talk With America's Sister President (New York: Doubleday, 1993), p. 29.

Black women's studies book, Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith, All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, but Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies (New York: Feminist Press, 1982).

Analysis of class privilege, in bell hooks, Ain't I A Woman: Black Women and Feminism, pp. 145-146.

Criticism of Black women forming feminist groups, ibid., pp. 150-151

Issue of being equal with which men, in bell hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center, p. 18.

White women acting like they own women's movement, ibid., p. 53.

Audre Lorde quote, Lorde, op. cit., p. 116.

White privilege, in Peggy McIntosh, "White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women's Studies," Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (eds.), Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1992), pp. 70-80.

Womanism, Alice Walker, In Search of Our Mother' Gardens: Womanist Prose (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983), p. xi.

Womanism versus feminism, Cole, op. cit., p. 107.

Objection to womanist, in bell hooks, Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black, pp. 18l-182.

Women shunning label feminist, in Bernice Lott, Women's Lives: Themes and Variations in Gender Learning, 2nd ed. (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1994), p. 8.

Midwives in South, in Linda Janet Holmes, "Thank You Jesus to Myself: The Life of a Traditional Black Midwife," in Evelyn C. White (ed.), The Black Women's Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves (Seattle, WA: Seal Press, 1990), pp. 98-106.

Observed race and class differences in breast feeding in interview with Anne Zachman, RN, Dec. 18, 1993.

 Racial differences in incidence of breast feeding, in Jennifer D. Parker and Barbara Abrams, "Differences in Postpartum Weight Retention Between Black and White Mothers," Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 81 (i), May 1993, pp. 768-774.

Women of means traveling to get abortions before Roe v. Wade, in Byllye Avery, "Breathing Life into Ourselves: The Evolution of the National Black Women's Health Project, 11 in Evelyn C. White (ed.), The Black Women's Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves (Seattle, WA: Seal Press, 1990), pp. 4-10.

Number of deaths caused by illegal abortions, in Angela Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Vintage Books, 1983), p. 205.

Sanger, ibid., p. 214.

Sterilization abuse and eugenics movement, ibid., pp. 202-221.

Hyde Amendment, in Bernice Lott, op. cit., p. 199.

Government still paying for sterilization procedure for poor women, in Davis, op. cit., pp. 221.

Quote, ibid.

Differing abortion rates, in Table No. III "Abortions-Number, Rate, and Ratio, by Race: 1975-1992-," Statistical Abstract of the United States (114th ed.), (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1994), p. 85.

NBWHP treating abortion as social problem, in Byllye Avery "Breathing Life into Ourselves," in Evelyn C. White (ed.), op. cit., pp. 4-10.

Abortion rights rally, in Dorothy Gilliam, "Women of Color: I Voice" Washington Post, Metro sect., April 10, 1989, p. D3.

Irene Esteves, in Barbara Brotman, "A Silent Minority: Whites Dominate the Debate-but not the passion- over the Abortion Issue" Chicago Tribune, Tempo sect., July 10, 1992, Zone: CN.

Black Americans for Life and quote by Akua Furlow, in "Blacks 'No Longer Silent' on Abortion," American Political Network, Aug. 25, 1992, 11th story, Level I.

 National Council of Negro Women survey, Barbara Brotman, op. cit.

 African American women being slow to embrace psychotherapy, in Deborah S. Pinkney, "Healing With Therapy," Essence, March 1993, pp. 45-46, 52, 54; in "negative attitude towards therapy," bell hooks, Sisters of the Yam: Black Women and Self-Recovery (Boston: South End Press, 1993).

 Feminist psychotherapy, Bernice Lott, op. cit., pp. 305-306.

Racial insensitivity of White therapists with Black patients, Julia A. Boyd, "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Feminist Therapy: Keys to Power" in Evelyn C. White (ed.), op. cit., pp. 226-234.

Suicide viewed as a gesture of weakness, in bell hooks, Sisters of the Yam, p. 105.

Suicide rates, in "Suicide Rates by Sex, Race, and Age Group: 1970 to 1989, Table No. 125, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 112th edition, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1992.

Poem, Kate Rushin, in "In Answer to the Question: Have You Ever Considered Suicide?" in Evelyn C. White (ed.), op. cit., p. 3.

Violence as main issue for Black women, Byllye Avery, "Breathing Life into Ourselves," pp. 4-10.

Six out of ten Black women suffering from stress and quote about their silence, Julia Boyd, In the Company of My Sisters (New York: Dutton, 1993), p. 101.

"Political is personal," Gloria Steinem, Revolution From Within: A Book of Self-Esteem (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993).

Julia Boyd telling Black women to better love themselves, in Boyd, op. cit.

Black ministers rejecting feminist theology, in Pauli Murray, "Black Theology and Feminist Theology: A Comparative View," in James H. Cone and Gayraud S. Wilmore (eds.), Black Theology: A Documentary History Volume One: 1966-1979 (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1993, 2nd ed. rev.), p. 316.

Paul's command about slaves and women, in James H. Cone and Gayraud S. Wilmore (eds.), ibid., p. 281.

Church blocking feminist consciousness, in Pauline Terrelonge, "Feminist Consciousness and Black Women, in Jo Freeman (ed.), Women: A Feminist Perspective (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing, 1989), pp. 556-566.

Mary Daly and her two books Beyond God the Father and GynIEcology, in Jacqueline Grant, Black Women's Christ and Black Women's Jesus: Feminist Christology and Womanist Response (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), pp. 151-172.

Criticisms of Daly, in Audre Lorde, "An Open Letter to Mary Daly," in Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldda (eds.), This Bridge Called my Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (NY: Kitchen Table, Women of Color Press, 1983), pp. 94-97.

Criticisms of Theresa Hoover, in Theresa Hoover, "Black women and the Churches: Triple Jeopardy," in James H. Cone and Gayraud S. Wilmore (eds.), Black Theology, p. 302.

Black women's feelings about church, in Alice Walker, In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983), p. 18; in Jacquelyn Grant, White Women's Christ and Black Women's Jesus: Feminist Christology and Womanist Response (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989).

Barbara Harris as first African American Episcopal priest, in Hillary Lips, Women, Men, and Power (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1991), p. 15.

Summit of African American female pastors and statements by Bronson and Marrow, in Elizabeth Eisenstadt, "Women Tell of Struggle as Pastors," Atlanta Constitution, Nov. 6, 1993, sect. E., p.6.

White-supremacist forces at work in the Thomas hearings, in bell hooks, Sisters of the Yam, p. 3.

Hill's refinement as a factor in White women's support of her by Julianne Malveaux, in M. P. Taylor, "A Call for Feminists to Mend Fences, Dallas Morning News, Aug- 4, 1993, Today sect., p. 5C.

Numbers of women in the House and Senate, Bernice Lott, op. cit., pp. 9-10.

Societal changes since Thomas hearings, including Harris v. Forklift Systems ruling, in Karen Branan, "Out for Blood: The Right's Vendetta Against Anita Hill's Supporters," Ms., Vol. IV, Jan.-Feb. 1994, pp. 82-87.

Rebecca Walker, in Mariah Bear, "Feminist Flair for Flexibility: Young.Activists Widen Approach," Cleveland Plain Dealer Dec. 13, 1992, Living Sect., p. 16.

NOW and its involvement, Warrior Marks in Marie-Jose Ragab, "NOW Give New Visibility to Mutilation," National NOW Times, Nov. 1993, pp. 1, 2, Col. 2.

Reference to Mary Morten in personal interview, Nov. 16, 1991.

Gillespie being new editor of Ms., Ann Scales, "Black Women Face Conflicts in Fight Against Racism, Sexism; Many Say Civil Rights, Feminist Movements Don't Fully Speak for Them," Dallas Morning News, July 23, 1993, News sect. p. IA.

Efia Nwangaza, in Ann Scales and Judith Lynn Howard, "Black Women Face Conflicts in Fight Against Racism, Sexism: Many Say Civil Rights, Feminist Movements Don't Fully Speak for Them" Dallas Morning News, Jul. 23, 1993, p. IA.

Not necessary for Black women to identify with White women to give them credit for feminist influences, Joseph and Lewis, op. cit., pp. 57, 278.

WAC, in Phoebe Hoban, "Big Wac Attack," New York magazine, Aug- 3, 1992, pp. 30-34, and to African American women being fastest growing group in electoral politics in WAC Stats (115 Spring Street, NY: The Women's Action Coalition), p. 16.

Carol Mosley Braun and United Daughters of the Confederacy, in Kevin Merida, " 'Sisters' Bring Change to Capitol Hill: Black Female Lawmakers are Working to Help Women and Children," San Francisco Chronicle, Aug. 5, 1993, Nation sect., p. A9.

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Chapter 7

Relations on the Home Front


Quote by Elinor Birney, in Susan Tucker, Telling Memories Among Southern Women: Domestic Workers and Their Employers in the Segregated South (New York: Schocken Books, 1988), p. 23

Quote, in Idella Parker, Idella: Marjorie Rawlings' Perfect Maid (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, I992), pp. 128-129.

Emancipation doesn't change Black women's lives, in Jacqueline Grant, Black Women's Christ and Black Women's Jesus: Feminist Christology and Womanist Response (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), p. 197.

Black women leave fields to become domestic servants, in Bonnie Thornton Dills, "Our Mothers' Grief- Racial Ethnic Women and the Maintenance of Families," in Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (eds.), Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1992), pp. 215-238; in Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Vintage Books, 1983), p. 90

Caste system of South left intact, in David Katzman, Seven Days a Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), p. 185.

Black domestics in North going back to colonial days, ibid., p. 203.

1850 census figures, in Judith Rollins, Between Women: Domestics and Their Employers (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1985), p. 51.

Black women unable to abandon domestic work after marriage, ibid., p. 54.

Northward migration of Black women, in Tucker, op. cit., p. 46; in Katzman, op. cit., p. 203.

Black women being turned away from factory jobs, in Grant, op. cit., p. 225.

Changing demographics of domestic servants in North compared with South, in Rollins, op. cit., p. 54.

Regional differences in status in having domestic servants, in Katzman, op. cit., p. 149.

South referred to as "White housewives utopia," ibid., p. 185.

6o percent of Black women employed as domestics in 1940,  in Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Vintage Books, 1983), p. 98.

Number of women doing domestic work in 1940, in Rollins, op. cit., p. 56.

Percent of women still doing domestic work in 1960 and 1970, ibid.

1992 census figures on private household workers and their race, Table No. 664, "Employed Civilians by Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1983 and i992," Statistical Abstract of the United States, 113th ed. (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1993), p. 407.

Where domestic servants come from today, in Allyson S. Grossman, "Women in Domestic Work: Yesterday and Today," Monthly Labor Review, Aug. 1980, pp. 17-21.

Quote, in Alice Childress, Like One of the Family: Conversations from a Domestic's Life (Boston: Beacon Press, 1956), pp. 36-37.

Methodology, in Rollins, op. cit., pp. 8-10.

Rationale for research, in Tucker, op. cit., p. 5.

Regional differences in race relations, ibid., p. 13.

Use of term "like one of the family," in Trudier Harris, Introduction, in Childress, op. cit., p. xviii.

Black women knowing that White women delude themselves "like one of the family," in Nancie Caraway, Segregated Sisterhood:  Racism and the Politics of American Feminism (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1991), p. 101.

White women singling out their own domestic servant as exceptional, in Tucker, op. cit., p. 227.

Relationship between domestic servants and White employers flowing out of their roles as women, in Katzman, op. cit., p. 153.

Blurred boundaries and devaluing of housework, in Rollins, op. cit., pp. 183-184.

White women enjoying power over someone, in David Katzman, "Domestic Service: Women"S Work," in Ann Strombery and Shirley Harkness (eds.), Women Working (Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing, 1978), p. 384.

Comfortable hiring a woman of color as a domestic servant, in Rollins, op. cit., p. 184.

Telephone interview with Mike, in March 1994.

Personal interview with Alice, April 15, 1994.

Intimacy of home environment, in Rollins, op. cit., p. 91.

Success of domestic arrangements measured in personal terms, ibid., p. 185.

Karen Edwards quote, ibid.

Elizabeth Roy quote, ibid.

Zelda Greene quote, in Tucker, op. cit., p. 204.

Quote, ibid., p. 147

White women confiding in Black women, in Tucker, op. cit., pp. 32, 190.

Displaying deference, in Rollins, op. cit., p. 147.

Ruby Lee Daniels's quote, Nicholas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America (New York. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1991), p. 34.

Black women bothered by being called by first names, in Katzman, op. cit., in P. 185; Rollins, op. cit., p. 176; in Susan Tucker, op. cit., p. 209.

Wearing a uniform, in Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (Perspectives on Gender), Vol. 2 (New York: Routledge, 1990), p. 57; in Katherine Boo, "Class Wear: Pride, Prejudice and the Not-So-Subtle Politics of the Working-Class Uniform," Washington Post, Feb. 7, 1993, Outlook sect., P. C

Black women burdened by gifts, in Rollins, op. cit.., pp. 189-190.

Toting, in Tucker, op. cit., p. 146.

Ellen Samuel, in Rollins op. cit., p. 191.

Maternalism, in Katzman, op. cit., p. 153.

Southern Black domestics giving gifts back, Tucker, op. cit., p. 147.

Quote by smug White female employer, ibid., p. 156.

Quote by loan Fox, in Rollins, op. cit., p. 214.

White women view gift giving as positive gesture, in Tucker, op. cit., p. 149.

Maternalism different in South, ibid., p. 146.

Domestics giving the gift of time, ibid.

Black domestics allowing White women to regress, in Adrienne Rich, "Disloyal to Civilization:  Feminism, Racism, Gynephobla," in On Lies, Secrets and Silence (New York: Norton, 1979), p. 297.

What White women call Blacks, ibid.

Stealing, in Rollins, op. cit., p. 202.

Flo Kennedy's mother, in Marcia Cohen, The Sisterhood: The True Story of the Women Who Changed the World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988), p. 161.

Quote, in Bonnie Thornton Dills, "The Means to Put My Children Through: Child-Rearing Goals and Strategies Among Black Female Domestic Servants," in Lauren Richardson and Verta Taylor (eds.), Feminist Frontiers III (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993), p. 110.

Mattie Washington quote, ibid., pp. 109.

Black domestics loving the White girl for no reason, in Jamacia Kincaid, "If Mammie Ruled the World," Geoffrey Stokes (ed.), Village Voice Anthology, 1965-1980: Twenty-five Years of Writing from the Village Voice (New York: Morrow & Co., 1982), p. 54.

Personal interview with Tara, March 1994.

Personal interview with Virginia, April 1994.

Personal interview with Lynn, Dec. 1993.

Effects on Black children when mother takes care of White children, in Tucker, op. cit., p. 195.

Excerpt about being raised to be tough, in April Sinclair, Coffee Will Make You Black (New York: Hyperion, 1994), p. 33.

Excerpt about Pecola causing mess, in Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye (New York: Washington Square Press, 1970), p. 87.

Personal interview with Tara, March 1994.

Excerpt about White and Black girls taking baths together, in Sinclair, op. cit., pp. 208-209.

Willa Murray, in Bonnie Thornton Dills, op. cit., p. 107.

Different parenting styles between White and Black women, ibid., pp. 100-110.

Gloria Wade-Gayles quote, cited in Patricia Hill Collins, "The Meaning of Motherhood in Black Culture and Black Mother-Daughter Relationship," Sage, Vol. 2 (1987), pp. 3-10.

Othermothers, ibid.

Number of Black-White marriages in iggo and 1970, in Jack Kroll, Vern E. Smith, and Andrew Murr, "Spiking a Fever," Time Magazine, June to, 1991, pp. 44-47.

Number of Black-White biracial children, in Candy Mills, "The Biracial Baby Boom," Interrace, Feb. 1994, p. 19.

Difficulty of getting accurate reporting of biracial children, in Nancy Nishimura Winn and Ronnie Priest, "Counseling Biracial Children: A Forgotten Component of Multicultural Counseling," Family Therapy, Vol..20 (Nov. 1993), pp. 29-36.

Biraciality and measures of adjustment, in Raymond Vagas, "The Psychological and Social Functioning of Latency Age Black/White Biracial Girls From Intact Interracial Families," Dissertation Abstracts International, B 52/IO p. 5571, April 1992.

Parenting strategies with biracial children, in Winn and Priest, op. cit., pp. 29-36.

Different struggles of White versus Black mother, in telephone interview with Candy Mills, publisher and founding editor of Interrace and Biracial Child magazines, April 1994.

One-drop rule of racial identity, in Kathy Russell, Midge Wilson, and Ron Hall, The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992), p. 14.

Quote about Gabriella from telephone interview with Candy Mills, publisher and founding editor of Interrace and Biracial Child magazines, April 1994.

Gender differences in individuation from the primary caregiver, in Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978).

Biracial children being successful, Francis Wardle, "Are Biracial Children Successful," Biracial Child, premier issue, Winter 1994, pp. 14-17.

Halle Berry quote, in Michelle Bennett, "Halle Berry: A Rising Star," Interrace, Jan.-Feb. 1994, p. 32.

Mariah Carey quote, in Lynn Norment, "Mariah Carey," Ebony, April 1994, pp. 54-58, 60.

Excerpt, in Lisa Jones, Bulletproof Diva: Tales of Race, Sex and Hair (New York: Doubleday, 1994), p. 29.

White Mother Martyr Syndrome, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 76.

Problems of adjustment in biracial children, in Michael R. Lyles, Antronette Yancey, Candis Grace, and James H. Carter, "Racial Identity and Self-Esteem: Problems Peculiar to Biracial Children," Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, vol. 24 (1985), pp. 150-153.

National Association of Black Social Workers, in Rita Simon and Howard Alstein, Adoption, Race and Identity: From Infancy Through Adolescence (New York: Praeger, 1992), p. 14; in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 100.

Drop in transracial adoptions since 1975, in Simon and Alstein, op. cit., p. 12.

Number of couples willing to adopt transracially, ibid., p. 3.

Psychological adjustment of transracial children, in Christopher Bagley, International and Transracial Adoptions: A Mental Health Perspective (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1993), pp. 8o-81.

Girls do well in transracial adoption situations, ibid., p. 16.

Jessica Zang and her mother, in "Trans-Racial Adoption," WMAQ-Chicago (NBC) Channel Five News report, March 23, 1994.

Carol Mosley Braun introducing bill in Congress, ibid.

Illinois' new policy on transracial adoptions, in Jon Margolis, "Of Race and Reason in Adoption," Chicago Tribune, May 21, 1995, News sect., p. 2.

Lesbian couple granted transracial child, in James Warren, "D.C. Judge Grants Custody to Lesbian in Transracial Adoption Suit, Chicago Tribune, Feb. 20, 1994, Tempo sect., p. 2.

Types of surrogate motherhood, in Lori Andrews, Between Stranger: Surrogate Mothers, Expectant Fathers, and Brave New Babies (New York: Harper & Row, 1989).

Number of surrogate births, in Martin Kasindorf, "And Baby Makes Four: Johnson vs. Calvert Illustrates just About Everything That Can Go Wrong in Surrogate Births," Los Angeles Times, Jan. 20, 1991.

Mary Beth Whitehead, in Lelia McDowell-Head, "On Surrogate Motherhood," Essence, July 1987, p. 136.

Annie Johnson, in Martin Kasindorf, op. cit.

Womb renting, in Lelia McDowell-Head, op. cit.

White woman suing sperm bank, in Ronald Sullivan, "Mother Accuses Sperm Bank of a Mixup," New York Times, March 9, 1990, p.,B1.

Quotes, in Patricia Williams, The Alchemy of Race and Rights (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), pp. 186-187.

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Chapter 8

Pop Culture and the Media

Whoopi Goldberg quote, in Whoopi Goldberg Live (Stamford, CT: Vestron Video, 1985).

Madonna quote, in James Ledbetter, "Imitation of Life," Vibe,Sept. 1992, p. 113.

Symbolism of Carrie Grace Battle's name from telephone interview with Kate Kane, Assistant Professor of Communication, DePaul University, Chicago, Nov. I0, 1994.

Percent of literate nineteenth-century White women, in Glynis Carr, "The Female World of Love and Racism: Interracial Friendship in U.S. Women's Literature, 1840-1940. A dissertation submitted to Ohio State University, 1989 (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1994), p. 44.

Harriet Stowe and Uncle Tom's Cabin, in Patricia A. Turner, Ceramic Uncles and Celluloid Mammies: Black Images and Their Influence on Culture (New York: Anchor Books, 1994), pp. 48-49.

Larger message about White women and Black women being friends, in Minrose C. Gwin, Black and White Women of the Old South: The Peculiar Sisterhood in American Literature (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985), p. 27.

Aunt Chloe is a mammy, in Turner, op. cit., p. 48.

Mammy character stripped of sexual allure, in Elizabeth Schultz, "Out of the Woods and into the World: A Study of Interracial Friendships between Women in American Novels," in Marjorie Pryse and Hortense J. Spillers (eds.), Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradition (Bloomington: In4lana University Press, 1985), pp. 67-85.

White women don't wish to hear truth about Black women's lives, in Turner, op. cit-, p. 48.

Harriet Wilson's Our Nig, in Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Introduction, Harriet E. Wilson, Our Nig; or Sketches from the Life of a Free Black (New York: Vintage Books, 1983), pp. xi-lv.

Iola Leroy, in "The Image of Black Women in Film," Marianna W. Davis (ed.), Contributions of Black Women to America (Columbia, SC: Kenday Press, 1982), p. 157.

Tragic mulatto genre in White women's books, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., pp. 136-137.

Black Renaissance, ibid., pp. 139-140.

Larsen and Fauset, in Rita B. Dandridge, "On the Novels Written by Selected Black American Women: A Bibliographical Essay," in Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith (eds.), All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brace (New York: Feminist Press at The City University of New York, 1982), pp. 272-276.

Late Renaissance authors writing for Black audiences, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 142.

Hurston working for Fannie Hurst, in Rita B. Dandridge, op. cit., p. 273.

Hurst's book Imitation of Life, in Glynis Carr, op. Cit., pp. 262-285.

Hattie McDaniel in Gone With the Wind, in Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer, Black Magic (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Da Capo Press, 1967), pp. 298, 310.

Jezebel, Richard Dyer, "White," Screen, VOI. 29, Aug. 1988, pp. 44-64.

Film Imitation of Life, in Bruce F. Kawin, A Short History of the Movies, 5th ed. (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992) pp. 312-315.

Percentage of homes with TV sets, in the documentary Color Adjustment (San Francisco: California Newsreel, 1991).

Sapphire stereotype in "Amos 'n' Andy," in Gloria Wade-Gayles, No Crystal Stair: Visions of Race and Sex in Black Women's Fiction (New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1984), p. 29.

Beulah, in Turner, op. cit., p. 53.

Vyry's forgiving gesture in Jubilee, in Minrose C. Gwin, "Jubilee: The Black Woman's Celebration of Human Community," in Marjorie Pryse and Hortense J. Spillers (eds.), Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradition (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), pp. 132-150.

Growing militancy of maids in Black women's fiction, in Trudier Harris, From Mammi'es to Militants: Domestics in Black American Literature (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, i982); in Turner, op. cit., p. 56.

Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye, Song of Solomon, and Tar Baby, in Linda Buck Myers, "May As Well Be a Rainbow: The Fiction of Toni Morrison:A Story of Reading." A dissertation submitted to the University of Iowa, 1989 (Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1994).

Conversation between Ondine and Margaret, in Toni Morrison, Tar Baby (New York: New American Library, 1981), p. 208.

Alice Walker's Meridian suggesting new treatment of White women, in Wade-Gayles, op. cit., p. 240.

Ellen Douglas's Can't Quit You, Baby, in Linda Kay Tate, op. cit., pp. 92-180.

Gall Godwin's A Mother and Two Daughters, in Elizabeth Schultz, op. cit., pp. 67-85.

Hollywood responding to political awakenings of Blacks and women, phone interview with Richard DeCordeva, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Communication, DePaul University, Chicago, Nov. 5, 1994.

Interracial male buddy genre, in Robyn Wiegman, "Negotiating. America: Gender, Race, and the Ideology of the Interracial Male Bond," Cultural Critique, vol.13, pp. 89-117.

Spike Lee's treatment of women in film, in Julianne Malveaux, "Spike's Spite: Women at the Periphery," Ms., Sept.-Oct. 1991, pp. 78-80.

Goldberg's many maid roles, ESSENTIALS, "Maid to Order," Essence, Nov. 1992;  p. 40; in Ethnic Notions: Black People in White Minds (San Francisco: California Newsreel, 1987).

Goldberg's role in Ghost, in Lisa Jones, "The Defiant One: A Talk With Film Historian Donald Bogle," Village Voice, June 4, 1991; pp. 69, 88, cited in Judith Mayne, Cinema and Spectatorship (New York: Routledge, 1993), p. 142.

Frequency of Black actresses playing maids in film, in WadeGayles, op. cit., p. 28.

Sixties activism forcing TV to change its images of Blacks, in Ethnic Notions: Black People in White Minds (San Francisco: California Newsreel, 1987).

Julia, in Video Adjustment (San Francisco: California Newsreel, 1991).

Dynasty, personal interview with Doreen Salina, Ph.D., director of clinical admissions, Northwestern University, Chicago, Nov. 10, 1994.

Daytime television and Black viewership, Alan Carter, "All My Sisters," Essence, Aug, 1992, pp. 70-72; 114, 116.

Aunt Jemima, in Marilyn Kern-Foxworth, Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben, and Rastus: Blacks in Advertising, Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994), pp. 61-114.

Research by Carolyn West on advertising images of Black women being more sexualized, in paper entitled, "Developing an 'Oppositional Gaze': Black Women and Distorted Beauty Images," at the 18th Annual Women in Psychology Convention, Atlanta, March 11-14, 1993.

Results of advertising survey and quote by respondent, "What Role Do Ads Play in Racial Tension," Advertising Age, vol. 63, Aug. to, 1992, pp 35.

Reference to WIC awards for Levi's for Women campaign and quote by Mimi Cook, copywriter, Foote, Cone, and Belding, telephone interview, Sept. 28, 1994.

Racism in advertising report, in "Race Bias Seen in Magazine Ads," Invisible Report, New York City Department of Consumer Affairs, July 24, 1991.

Preference for light-skinned models in advertising, Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 156.

Dark-skinned women in fashion modeling, in J. Clinton Brown, "Which Black Is Beautiful?" Advertising Age, vol. 64, Feb. 1, 1993, p. 19.

Givenchy, in Sophftonia Scott, "It's a Small World After All: An Ethnic Rainbow Is Brightening Ads and Fashion Runways," Time, Sept. 25, 1989.

Omission of Beverly Johnson from Vogue book and quote by her, Kansas City Star, Oct. 28, 1993, Stargazing sect., p. 1.

BGC, in Deborah Gregory and Patricia Jacobs, "The Ugly Side of the.Modeling Business," Essence, Sept. 1993, pp. 89-90, 126, 128.

Naomi Campbell quote, in Janet Ozzard, "Black Models Target Racism," Toronto Star, Dec. 26, 1992, Fashion sect., p. E6.

Iman quote, in Vancouver Sun, Dec. 29, 1992, Vansun Style sect., p. C1.

Black models asked to wear wigs, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op Cit., p.154.

History of Miss America pageant, in A. R. Riverol, Live from Atlantic City: The History of the Miss America Pageant Before, After and in Spite of Television (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1992).

First Black woman competing at national level, ibid., P. 103pp. 263-264 Controversy within Black community over Vanessa Williams winning Miss America, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., pp. 152-154P. 264 Runner-up Suzette Charles finishing Williams term, in K. Sue Jewell, From Mammy to Miss America and Beyond.- Cultural Images and the Shaping of US Social Policy (London: Routledge, 1993), p. 53.

Other Black Miss Americas, in Karima A. Haynes, "Miss America: From Vanessa Williams to Kimberly Aiken," Ebony, Jan. 1994, pp. 42-44, 46.

Rockettes and Violet Holmes quote, in Patricia J. Williams, The Alchemy of Race and Rights (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), p. 116.

Mere symmetry, ibid., pp. 116-117.

Nontraditional casting, in Russell, Wilson, and Hall, op. cit., p. 150.

Telephone interview with Phylis Griffin, associate professor, Theater School, DePaul University, Chicago, Sept. 28, 1994.

Janis Joplin's singing styles, in Ledbetter, op. cit., pp. 113-116.

Manager in "Sandra's Blackness," ibid.

Rare White performer in "Sandra's Blackness," ibid.

Marketing of women singers' sexual appeal with the emergence of music videos, in Gillian G. Gaar, She's a Rebel. The History of Women in Rock and Roll (Seattle, WA: Seal Press, I992), pp. 323-362.

Women's sexuality hurting their image, in John Leland, "Our Bodies, Our Salts," Netvsweek, jan- 3I, I994, Arts sect., pp.. 56-57.

Comments made by Jamie Foster Brown, publisher, Sister 2 Sister, during panel discussion at the Speech, Equality, and Harm: Feminist Legal Perspectives on Pornography and Hate Propaganda Conference, Chicago, March 5-7, 1993.

Quote by C. Delores Tucker in National Political Congress of Black Women, Inc., report, "Entertainment Commission Wages War on Gangster Lyrics and Misogyny in Rap: Is Anybody Listening? . . . Your Children Are!!!" issued on Nov. 2, I993.

Quote, in William Raspberry, "We Should Not Participate in Our Own Degradation," Dallas Morning Netvs, Aug. 6, 1993, p. 27A.

Quote by Euzhan Palcy, in Ally Acker, Reel Women: Pioneers of the Cinema: 1896 to the Present (New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1991) p. 120.

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Epilogue

Sisters Beneath the Skin

Telephone interview with Carmelia Saraceno, Feb. 18, 1995.