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عويس، سالم: التقييم والاختبار في تعليم اللغة

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‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ: ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل،‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ، ﻭﺍﻝﺘ ‪‬ﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﻁ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ. ﺴﺎﻝﻡ ﻋﻭﻴﺱ – ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺴﺘﺎﻨﻔﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻻﺕ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ. ﻭﻴﺘﻤ ﹼل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺤ ‪‬ل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ. ﻭﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺒﻪ ﺒﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ.‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺄﻋﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻻﺕ ﻤﺒ ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺒ ﹼﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫‪‬ﻴﹰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺒﺜﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ. ﻭﺴﺘﺒ ‪‬ﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻭ ﹼﺭﻫﺎ ﻝﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺨﺎﺕ ﻓ ‪‬ﺎﻝﺔ ﻭﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﻌﺯﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺜﺭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ. ﻭﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻭﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﺘﺒ ‪‬ﻥ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ.‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺏ )ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺴﻜﻨﺭ ﻭﻭﺍﻁﺴﻥ، ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻲ ﻭﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ(.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺭﺯﺕ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻨﻁﻠﻘﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻥ- ﺍﻝﺩﻤﺎﻍ. ﻭﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻗﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻝﻠﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻲ‬ ‫‪‬ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻜﻭﺘﺴﻜﻲ ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﺤﻭل ﻤﺎ ﺩﻋﺎﻫﺎ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ – ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺸﻴﻙ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻥ )‪ .Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD‬ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺒﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨﺹ ﻤﺘﻤﺭﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ )ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ، ﻤﺜﻼ(. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺴﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺭﺱ. ﻓﻌﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺎﻝﺞ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺸﺩﻩ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺤﺩﺍﻩ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫1‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺸﺩ ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﻝﻠﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺤﻠﻭﻻ ﻭﺨﻁﻁﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻝﺏ ﻝﻐﻭﻱ ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺒﺼﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ )ﻤﺜل ﻓﻬﻡ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺓ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻨﺹ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ( ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ. ﻭﻴﻘﻭل ﻓﻴﻜﻭﺘﺴﻜﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺩﻻﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻠﻐﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻲ.‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺌل ﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻫﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻗﺎﺭﺩﻨﺭ ‪ Howard Gardner‬ﺒﺎﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫د"‬ ‫م "ا آ ء ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ ر " رد "‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻭﺁﺜﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺴﻭﺍﻩ ﻭﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﻝﻜل ﺍﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﻪ ﻭﺤﺩﻩ.‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ "ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ" )‪ .(Multiple Intelligences‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻏﻴﺭﺕ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﺎﺕ. وﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺠﻭﻫﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﻴﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻠﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ. ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ. ﺒل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻜل ﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻘل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺒﻤﻌﺯل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝﻪ. ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺭﺩﻨﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ. ﻭﻴﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻗﺎﺭﺩﻨﺭ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ:‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﻭﻱ )‪ ،(linguistic/verbal‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻲ/ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻲ )‪ ،(math/logical‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺴﻴﻘﻲ )‪ ،(musical‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ/ﺍﻝﺠﺴﻤﻲ/ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﻲ )‪ ،(bodily-kinesthetic‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫)‪ ،(interpersonal‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻲ-ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻲ )‪ ،(intra-personal‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻲ )‪،(naturalist‬‬ ‫ﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺼﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﻲ )‪.(spatial‬‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ "ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼل ﻝﻜل ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ، ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺘﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﻝﺩﻯ ﻜل ﻁﺎﻝﺏ.‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺌﻜﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ. ﻭﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻝﻨﺎ ﺇﻁﺎﺭﺍ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺠﺫﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﻤﺭﻨﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫2‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻪ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ. ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﺀﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺫﺍﺀ ﻝﻠﻔﺭﺩ، ﻓﺎﻝﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻻ ﻴﺼﻠﺢ ﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ. ﻓﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﻭﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻝﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ. ﻭﻴﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻭ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺘﻐ ‪‬ﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ. ﻭﺴﻨﻌﺭﺽ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻼﺤﻘﺔ.‬ ‫ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ - ﻤﻜ ‪‬ﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ﻭﻤﻜ ‪‬ﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭﻗﺩ ﺘﻐ ‪‬ﺭ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻠﻔﺘﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺭ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻗل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ "ﺒﻠﻭﻡ" ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ، ﺍﻝﻔﻬﻡ – ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ، ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ، ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل، ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ، ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ( ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻴﻨﺼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺎﻗﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺒﺩﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻤﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺤل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ.‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ :‬ ‫ﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ ﺍﺼﻁﻼﺡ "ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ"1 ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎ ﺒﺎﺼﻁﻼﺡ "ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ" ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﻜﺎﺩ ﻴﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻫﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻤﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﺘﺭﺍﺩﻓﺎﻥ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ، ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺭﻗﺎ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺎ. ﻓﺎﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﻪ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ: ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ. ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻋﺩﺕ ﻝﺘﻘﻴﺱ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ. ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﺏ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺸﺎﻤل ﻭﻤﻔﺼل ﻴﻠﻘﻰ ﻗﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ. ﻭﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﻫﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﻲ ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ )ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ( ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ(.‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻫﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻐﺔ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫1- ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﻠﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ )ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ‪(Summative‬‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ً.‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫" وه ا‬ ‫"ا‬ ‫ءو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫" أي‬ ‫"ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ه اا‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫1‬ ‫3‬ ‫2- ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺭﺩ ﻝﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ ﺒﻪ )ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻲ ‪(Formative‬‬ ‫3- ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﻌﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﹼﻡ.‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫4- ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﺍﻝﻼﺤﻕ.‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫5- ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫6- ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺤ ﹼﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻨﺸﺎﻁﻪ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻴﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ.‬ ‫7- ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻤﺴﺒﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻼﺀﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻌﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ .‬ ‫8- ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻝﻁﻼﺒﻪ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺘﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ.‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫9- ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻭﺍﻜﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ.‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻜﻥ، ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﻤ ‪‬ﺔ، ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ ﹸﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﺒﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﻤ ﹼل ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻪ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻴﻤﻪ. ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺸﻜل ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻤﺎ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺤﺎﻥ. ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺄل: ﻫل ﻨﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻬل ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ، ﺃﻡ: ﻫل ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ.‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﺍﺜﺔ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺴﺨﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﻝﻪ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺃﺴﺱ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺕ ﺍﹼﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ، ﻭﺃﻫ ‪‬ﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫1 ـ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ )ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ، ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ( .‬ ‫2 ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ.‬ ‫3ـ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻝﻬﻡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻜل ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻪ.‬ ‫ﱞ‬ ‫4ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺸﻤﻭﻝ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ )ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ، ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺩ ‪‬ﺱ، ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ(.‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫4‬ ‫5ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ.‬ ‫6ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ )ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ، ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﻻﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ، ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ، ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ،‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ(.‬ ‫7. ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻻ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻫﺩﻓﺎ ﻝﺫﺍﺘﻪ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫8ـ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭ ﹼﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫9ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ.‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﻭﻓﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻜﻲ ﻨﺜﻕ ﺒﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻪ ﻭﻨﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻴﺴﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺸﺭﻁﺎ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻝﻨﺠﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ، ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻨﻨﺔ. ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻠﺢ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻷﻜﻤل، ﻭﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻴﻜﺘﻤل ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﺕ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻪ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ .‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﺃ ـ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ : ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺼﻔﻪ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺜﻡ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻪ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﻝﻴﺔ )ﺃﻱ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ( ﻭﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺃﻻ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﺯﻭﻤﻬﺎ ﺃﺸﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻼﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻝﺴﺒﺏ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺒﺂﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺤﺢ ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ ﻝﻺﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ. ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻼ ﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺨﺎﺹ، ﻭﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ.‬ ‫ﺏ- ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ: ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ، ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎ "ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ" ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ )ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ، ﻤﺜﻼ( ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘ ‪‬ﻋﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ. ﻓﺎﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻴﺱ ﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ ﻓﻌﻼ )ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ُ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﺜﻼ(، ﻭﻻ ﻴﻘﻴﺱ ﺸﻴﺌﺎ ﺁﺨﺭ. ﻭﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﻜل ﺴﺅﺍل ﻓﻴﻪ. ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺼﻠﺢ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺼﺎﻝﺤﺎ ﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻜﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫5‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ. ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻭﺨﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺒﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻐﻤﻭﺽ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ. ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﻴﺴ ‪‬ﻰ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ.‬ ‫ﺝ - ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ : ﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻁﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔ. ﻭﻴﻘﺎﺱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺘﻁﺎﺒﻘﺕ ﻗﻴل ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ. ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ )ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﺜﻼ( ﻭﻓﻕ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭل " ﺜﻭﺭﻨﺩﺍﻴﻙ ﻭﻫﺎﺠﻥ" )6891(، ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ )ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻼ(، ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻗﺘﺔ )ﺍﻝﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺘﺭ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎﻝﻲ ﻤﺜﻼ(، ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻗﺘﺔ )ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻫﺏ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺤﻅ ﻤﺜﻼ(.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩ ـ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ : ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺯ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒﺭﺯ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺭﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻔﻭﻗﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﻌﺎﻑ، ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺸﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ، ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻜل‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴﺅﺍل ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ. ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻬل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺼﻌﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ، ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻤﻌﺘﺩل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻗﻠﻬﺎ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﺼﺎﻍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺤﺼل ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻔﺎﻭﺘﺔ .‬ ‫ﻭﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻜل ﺴﺅﺍل ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻬﻭﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺼﻌﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ) ‪‬ﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ( ﻭﺩﺭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ) ‪‬ﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ( ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺎﻁﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﻭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺴﺅﺍل ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻜل ﺴﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻜﻠﻪ .‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﹰ، ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺴﻬﻭﻝﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻝﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁ ﻭﺴﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﻬﻡ.‬ ‫6‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺼ ﹼﻲ‬ ‫ﻔ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺍ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺘﹾﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ. ﺍﻝﺘﻭ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺒﻪ ﻴﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻼﺌﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺎ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫1- ﺍﻝﺠﻠﻭﺱ ﻝﻼﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﺨﺎﺼﺔ "ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ"‬ ‫2- ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫3- ﻋﻤل ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫4- ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫5- ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫6- ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺤل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ، ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ، ﺇﻝﺦ(‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ:‬ ‫7- ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺱ ﺒﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ )ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ(‬ ‫8- ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻠﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻨﺸﺎﻁ "ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺒﺼﻭﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ" ﺨﻼل ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻬﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ، ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ، ﻭﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ.‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻴﺘﻭ ‪‬ﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ، ﻜﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴ ‪‬ﻥ، ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ. ﻭﺘﺘ ‪ ‬ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫1- ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ )‪ (norm-referenced‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﺎ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ‬ ‫)‪ (Normal Distribution‬ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺘﻐﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺨﻭﺍﺹ )‪ (Heterogeneous‬ﻜﺎﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﻠﻡ.‬ ‫2- ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﻁﻠﻕ ‪Criterion-referenced‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻜﺩ ﺃ ﹼﻪ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺘﻨﺎ ﻜﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ. ﻝﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻜﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﻫ ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻭﻤﻌ ‪‬ﻘﺔ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ. ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺘﻔﻴﺩﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫7‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﺭﻓﻬﻡ ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻬﻡ ﺒﺎﻻﺠﺎﺒﺔ، ﻭﺤل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺸﻁﺔ. ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل ﻝﻠﺘﻐﹼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻴﺘﻤ ﹼل ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻝﻐﻭﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻤﺎﺜل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ.‬ ‫1- ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻜﻭﺼﻑ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫2- ﺍﻝﺤﻘﺎﺌﺏ: ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺴﺠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﺒ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫3- ﻋﺭﻭﺽ، ﻭﻫﻲ ﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﺭﺴﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺼﻭﺭ ﻭﺘﺴﺠﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫4- ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﺎﺕ، ﻜﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺸﻌﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫5- ﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫6- ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺭﺸﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻜﺎﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻭﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﻁﺒﻕ ﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫7- ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ، ﻜﺸﺭﺡ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﺜ ﹰ، ﺃﻭ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫8- ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﻤﻭﻗﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻜﺤﺠﺯ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﺩﻕ ﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫9- ﻭﺼﻑ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫01- ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻨﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ: ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻴﺎ:‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻤﺘﺤﺩﺙ، ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ، ﻭﺼﻑ ﺸﺨﺹ، ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺨﺒﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺩﺙ.‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻴل ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺃﺼﻴﻼ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﺕ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ. ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل ﻓﻬﻭ ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻴل.‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ: ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩ‬ ‫8‬ ‫ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺤﺩﻴﺜﻨﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﻤﻜ ‪‬ﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ. ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩ ‪‬ﻤ ﹼل ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺙ،‬ ‫ﻴﺜ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻝﻜﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇ ﹼﻔﺎﻕ ﺸﺒﻪ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﺴﺎﺴ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜ ‪‬ﻨﺎﺕ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻜﺤل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺄﻤل ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻕ ﻜﺎﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﻻل ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ.‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻭﺒﺨﺎ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﺎ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ، ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﺘﻨﺩﺭﺝ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫"ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘ ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﺼ ‪‬ﺔ" ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ. ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻝﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻀﺭ، ﻋﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻭﻝﻤﺔ، ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻤﺘﻼﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﻨﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﻭﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯﺍ ﺒﺎﻤﺘﻼﻜﻪ ﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ.‬ ‫ﻝﻜﻥ ﻝﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺩل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﺇﻜﺴﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ، ﻭﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻠﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺇﻜﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺘﺘﺩﺨل ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻬﺎ. ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺇﻜﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﺎ ﻝﻠﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺠﺯﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺭﺭ ﻭ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻨﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻜﻬﺩﻑ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﻴﺔ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ،‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺸﻙ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺠﻬﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﹼﻤﻴﻥ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠ ‪‬ﺓ. ﻝﻜﻥ،‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻜﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺃﻝﻰ ﺍﻤﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻻﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻨﺫﻜﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ: ﻁﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ، ﺍﻷﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ، ﻭﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ – ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﻴﻌﹼﻡ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻁﺭﺡ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ،‬ ‫ﻴﺩ ‪ ‬ﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ، ﻓﺘﺢ ﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻭﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻝﻼﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﻱ، ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‬ ‫9‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺯﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ، ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ، ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺭﻭﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﻭﺒﺔ. ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ، ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ، ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺫﻜﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﻬﻡ. ﻭ ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﻗﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ‪‬ﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻝﻔﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﺅﺍل ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺸﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﺴﺅﺍل.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ، ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺱ ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺒﺼﻭﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ‪ ،Think Aloud‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ، ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻭﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺇﻤﺘﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﻝﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻴﻔﻬﺎ. ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﺒﻭ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻤﺘﻼﻜﻬﺎ،‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ. ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻭ ﹼﺭﻫﺎ ﻝﻺﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﺍﻝﻔ ‪‬ﺎل. ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ، ﻭﺤﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻠ ﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ، ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺘﺒ ﹼﻲ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻔ ‪‬ﺎل ﻭﺍﺴﺎﻝﻴﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ. ﻭﺴﺄﺤﺎﻭل ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺘﻭﺼﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻭ ﹼﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺎﺠﻌﺔ.‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﻤﻨﻁﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻝﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺘﻰ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﻴﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺄﻤﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻤﺘﻼﻜﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ، ﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺫﻭﻝﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻓﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻤﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ. ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻝﺯﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﺝ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ، ﻭﺠﻌل ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺎﺭﻴﻑ ﻝﻠﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔ ‪‬ﺎل ﻫﻭ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ُﻴﻔﻌل ﻤﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺎ ﻭﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺸﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ . ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻬﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫01‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﻭﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﺽ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺘﺤﺕ ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻪ ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻴﻤﻪ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭل ﺒﺭﻭﻜﻔﻴﻠﺩ )5002( ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﻪ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔ ‪‬ﺎل "... ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔ ‪‬ﺎل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺭﺒﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻠﻤﺱ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻕ ﻜﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻑ. ﺇﻨﻪ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻴﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻝﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻤﺤﻴﻁﻪ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻋﻴﻪ ﻝﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻪ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﺍ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻭﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺍﻝﻔﻬﻡ..." . ﻭﻗﺎل ﻜﻭﻝﺩﻭل )1002(... ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﻴﻌﻠﻡ ﻜﻴﻔ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻬﺎﺠﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻤﻬﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔ ‪‬ﺎل ﻴﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺸﺭﺍﻜﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻡ."‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ، ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ، ﺃﻱ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺴﻭﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﺠﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﻁﺎﻝﺏ .‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﺒﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻝﻬﺎ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻭﺓ. ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻓﻀل. ﻭﻤﻥ ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺜﺒﺕ ﺠﺩﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ :‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﺭﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺴﻁﺔ .‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺤل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ .‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ .‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺤﻴﻭﻱ، ﻴﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﻝﻘﺎﺌﻲ ، ﻝﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻴﺭ ﹼﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻝﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺘﻴﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ ﻜ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ. ﻭﻜﻤﺜﺎل ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻲ ﻝﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺘﻌﹼﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﹰ ‪ ‬‬ ‫11‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ. ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻝﻘﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺴﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺒﺎﺨﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ، ﺍﻝﺦ.، ﻭﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺨﻤﺱ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ، ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻝﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ. ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﺴﻴﻁﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ: ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻨﻌﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ )ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻱ( ، ﻭﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﹼﻤﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ. ﻭ ‪‬ﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﹼﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ، ﻭﻴﺤﺎﻭل ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﺤﻭﺍﺭﻱ ﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺭﺩﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫)ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ( ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ )ﻤﻠ ﹼﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﻭﻴﻥ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ(. ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻻﺤﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ )ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ، ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺥ، ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ، ﺍﻝﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ، ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭﺓ، ﺍﻝﺦ.(، ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺒﻼﺕ )ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺘﻤﺜﻴﻠﻴﺔ( ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻝﻬﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ.‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻜﻠﻪ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ :‬ ‫1. ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺘﻭﻓﺭﻫﺎ.‬ ‫2. ﺘﺩﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻝﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ .‬ ‫3. ﺘﺩﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ .‬ ‫4. ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ .‬ ‫5. ﺘﺩﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﻭﺽ ﻭﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ .‬ ‫6. ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﻭﺸﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻝﻶﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻘﻨﻌﺔ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺘﺤﻭﻻ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺠﺫﺭﻱ ﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﻋﺭﻀﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻝﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل، ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ، ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل، ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ. ﻭﺃﺸﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ، ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻝﺠﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻤﻕ ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎ. ﻭﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ‪‬ﺸﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺒﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻗﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫21‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﻅ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻁﺤﻲ، ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺒﺩل ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ. ﻭﻨﺄﻤل ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﺔ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﺫﻝﻨﺎ ﺠﻬﺩﺍ ﻝﺘﺄﻁﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻁﻘﻴﻥ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﺼﺎﺤﺒﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﺼﺩﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻁﺭﻗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﺒل ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺍﺘﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻝﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ.‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ، ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻤﻴﺩ )2002( ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ، ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ،‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ، ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫31‬ ،1 .‫ﺠﺎﺒﺭ، ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻴﻡ )4002( ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ. ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﺜﺭﻭﺕ، ﻁ‬ .‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ Becker, H. 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Research and Education : Fad or Q, http://www.patwolfe.comfoundation.com ‫ﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ 1: ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ 15 ‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻱ، ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻲ، ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ:‬ ‫• ﺍﻝﻌﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻱ‬ ‫• ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺠﻤل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺘﻌﺎﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫• ﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﺠﻤل ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ "ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﻁ"‬ ‫• ﺇﺸﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭ‬ ‫• ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﻻل‬ ‫• ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‬ ‫• ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﻏﻴﺔ - ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﺒﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﺯﻴﺔ )ﻤﺜﻼ: ﺃﺒﻴﺽ – ﻭﺍﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻠﺏ، ﻋﻥ ﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﻠﺏ، ﺘﻨ ﹼﺱ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﺩﺍﺀ( ﻭﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻘﻀﺎﺌﺩ ﻤﺜل "ﺃ ‪‬ﻲ" ﻭ"ﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ" ﻭ"ﻗﺎﺭﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﻨﺠﺎﻥ"، ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ. ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﺒﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻁﻼﺒﻪ ﺒﺸﺭﺡ ﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ، ﻭﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﺯﻱ.‬ ‫• ﻋﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫• ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻤﻌ ‪‬ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫• ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫• ﺘﻭﻝﻴﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺌﻠﺔ )ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ(‬ ‫• ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤل ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫• ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫• ﺘﺨﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻻﺌل ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫• ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫• ﻨﻘﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺤﻭل ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ، ﻗﻀﻴﺔ، ﻜﺘﺎﺏ، ﺨﺒﺭ، ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ، ﺍﻝﺦ.‬ ‫• ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﻴﺔ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ‬ ‫• ﻝﻌﺏ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻜﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫• " ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺼﻭ‪‬ﺭ" ﺒﺩل " ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﺭﻯ ﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺼﻭ‪‬ﺭ"‬ ‫61‬ ‫• "ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻊ – ﺘﺘﻨﺒﺊ ﺴﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ" ﺒﺩل "ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺴﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬ ‫• "ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻴﺭ..." ﺒﺩل "ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻥ ﻨﻔ ‪‬ﺭ..."‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫"ﺒﺩل ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﺤﻠل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ" ﺒﺩل "ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﺤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ"‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ 2: ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺤﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﹼﺔ.‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ )ﻤﺜﻼ 1 2 3 4 5(‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﻤﺴﺔ )ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ(.‬ ‫‪‬ﻌﻁﻰ ﻜل ﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ - ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻪ )ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﻤﺴﺔ(‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ) ﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ(‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﻜل ﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ )ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ( ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻜل "ﺨﺒﻴﺭ"‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻝﻶﺨﺭﻴﻥ.‬ ‫. ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﻤﺭ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﻋﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺸﺎﺩ، ﻭﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺠﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻴﻬﺎ )ﻤﺸﺭﻑ، ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ،‬ ‫ﻤﻴ ‪‬ﺭ، ﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ(‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ 3: ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﻲ )ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ، ﻤﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ، ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ، ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ(‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻋﺼﻑ ﻓﻜﺭﻱ )ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺘﻨﺸﻴﻁﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل؟‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ؟‬ ‫1.‬ ‫2.‬ ‫3.‬ ‫4.‬ ‫5. ﺃﺸﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻝﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺤ ﹼﺎﻡ: ﻤﻠﻙ، ﻤﻠﻜ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ، ﻤﺎﻝﻙ، ﻤﻤﻠﻭﻙ، ﺍﻝﺦ.‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫71‬ ‫ُﺘﻭ ‪‬ﻉ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﺸﻤﻴﺔ، ﺴﻠﻁﻨﺔ ‪‬ﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ، ﺍﻷﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺒﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻋﻤل ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺼ ‪‬ﺎﺀ، ﺃﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺎﻝﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ:‬ ‫ﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻡ، ﺒﻼﺩ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺭﻴﻥ – ﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻓﺩﻴﻥ، ﺸﻤﺎل ﺃﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺎ، ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻴل‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ:‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻝﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺼ ‪‬ﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺎﻝﻴﻡ‬ ‫1.‬ ‫2.‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺸﻔﻭﻱ : ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﺎ؟‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ، ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﻠﻌﺏ ﺩﻭﺭ "ﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻤﻌ ‪‬ﻨﺔ" ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻁﺭﺡ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﺩﻭﻝﺔ، ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻫﻭ "ﺍﻝﺘﻌ ‪‬ﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ" ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘ ‪‬ﻤﺔ. ﻤﺜﻼ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﺤﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﻫﻲ....، ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﻤﺔ...، ﺍﻝﺦ.‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺸﻔﻭﻱ: ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺩﻭل ﻋﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ - ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ:‬ ‫‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺹ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ – ﺠﻤل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ، ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ – ﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴﺴ‬ ‫81‬