--------------------------------------------------------------------------
The arithmetic operations of ADD, SUBTRACT, MULTIPLY, DIVIDE and COMPUTE require valid numeric data.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Since numeric computations need valid numbers, each operand on that contributes its value to the calculation must contain a valid number.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

ADD A TO B

A and B must have valid numeric data because both A and B are used for the calculation.

The results of A + B is recorded in B.  In this case B is an operand in the calculation and the field which receives the result of the calculation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

ADD A, B GIVING C

 Also requires that A and B have a valid numeric data.

C does not require valid numeric data prior to the calculation because the value of C is not part of the formula.

C is the receiving field of the calculation rather than a contributing operand.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

The field receiving the outcome of the calculation should have enough digits to contain the answer.
 
ON SIZE ERROR can be used with any arithmetic operation.

     01 E PIC 9 VALUE 9.

     ADD 1 TO E.

 The result in E is zero.

     ADD 1 TO E
         ON SIZE ERROR
             DISPLAY ' E needs more integers to hold the result'
         NOT ON SIZE ERROR
             DISPLAY ' E has enough integers to hold the result'
     END-ADD

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Arithmetic operations can be performed on numeric data of different types.

Since each numeric type has a different format, a number is valid if it fits the format of its USAGE type.

 PIC  999 USAGE DISPLAY.
 PIC  99V9 USAGE DISPLAY.

Uses 1 byte per digit of readable EBCDIC values '0' through '9'.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 PIC S99V9 USAGE DISPLAY

   Same readable values as above, except

last digit may contain         for values ending in
   'A' through 'I'               +1 through +9
   'J' through 'R'               -1 through -9
        '{'                           +0
        '}'                           -0
----------------------------------------------------------------------

 PIC S999 USAGE COMPUTATIONAL.
 PIC 9999 USAGE COMP.
 PIC  99  USAGE BINARY.

Not readable.  Any bit configuration is a valid binary number.
the high order bit is often used to indicate negative numbers.

Do not use for numbers containing decimals.

Any number of digits can be pictured with the comp/binary field.

The number of digits used for the picture determines the amount of
storage used.

Signed Pictures of    storage size            Value max
9     to  9(4)        2 bytes                 32768
9(5)  to  9(9)        4 bytes (full word)     2147483648
9(10) to  9(18)       8 bytes (2 full words)  9223372036854775808

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 PIC S999 USAGE COMPUTATIONAL-3.
 PIC S999 USAGE COMP-3.
 PIC S999 USAGE PACKED-DECIMAL.

Not readable.

Stored 2 digits per byte, except for the last byte which contains a digit and the sign + as C, - as D, unsigned as F.
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 USAGE COMP-1. Single precision floating point requiring 4 bytes
 USAGE COMP-2. Double precision floating point requiring 8 bytes

Does not need a picture clause.
Both of these forms are used for engineering computations.
The data is stored in scientific notation.
This form is rarely used in COBOL.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
TEST of CLASS

If the input data cannot be trusted, test whether it is numeric
before doing calculations,

A PIC 999.
B PIC 999.
C PIC 999.

IF A NUMERIC AND B NUMERIC
   ADD A, B GIVING C
       ON SIZE ERROR
          DISPLAY ' C should be larger to hold the result'
          MOVE ZEROS TO C
   END-ADD
ELSE
   DISPLAY 'The input was not valid'
END-IF
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TEST OF SIGN

If the fields used are signed, a negative number is valid.

However a negative number may not be a valid number for certain entries--such as salary.

Test the field for positive values if that is necessary for a correct result.

SALARY  PIC S9(6).

NEW-SALARY  PIC S9(6).

IF  SALARY NUMERIC AND SALARY POSITIVE
    COMPUTE NEW-SALARY ROUNDED = SALARY * 1.15
        ON SIZE ERROR
            DISPLAY ' SALARY does not fit into storage
        NOT ON SIZE ERROR
            DISPLAY ' The new SALARY is ' NEW-SALARY
     END-COMPUTE
ELSE
     DISPLAY 'The input SALARY was not valid'
END-IF
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
CONDITION-NAMES

Can be used to add meaning to the program
and simplify understanding of what the code is doing.
 

Hard to read and/or understand code.

01 CODE-IN  PIC X.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

IF CODE-IN = 'A'
   PERFORM 100-PROCESS
ELSE
IF CODE-IN = 'B'
   PERFORM 200--PROCESS
etc
------------------------------------------------------------------------

More meaningful code by using Condition names.

01 CODE-IN  PIC X.
   88 POLICY-100 VALUE 'A'.
   88 POLICY-200 VALUE 'B'.
   etc
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
IF POLICY-100
   PERFORM 100-PROCESS
ELSE
IF POLICY-200
   PERFORM 200--PROCESS
etc
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Maybe the EVALUATE verb is even clearer.

EVALUATE TRUE
 WHEN POLICY-100 PERFORM 100-PROCESS
 WHEN POLICY-200 PERFORM 200-PROCESS
  Etc
END-EVALUATE

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Condition names can be used for numeric values.

01 TEST-SCORE PIC 999.
   88 A-GRADE  VALUES ARE 90 THRU 100.
   88 B-GRADE  VALUES ARE 80 THRU 89.
   88 C-GRADE  VALUES ARE 70 THRU 79
   88 D-GRADE  VALUES ARE 60 THRU 69.
   88 F-GRADE  VALUES ARE 00 THRU 59.

 01  LETTER GRADE PIC X.

EVALUATE TRUE
   WHEN A-GRADE MOVE 'A'  TO LETTER-GRADE.
   WHEN B-GRADE MOVE 'B'  TO LETTER-GRADE.
   WHEN C-GRADE MOVE 'C'  TO LETTER-GRADE.
   WHEN D-GRADE MOVE 'D'  TO LETTER-GRADE.
   WHEN F-GRADE MOVE 'F'  TO LETTER-GRADE.
   WHEN OTHER   MOVE '?'  TO LETTER-GRADE.
END-EVALUATE
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------