Agents can also be constructed based along wholistic lines using lay personality types (i.e., without specific pedagogical goals), based on principles outlined in, e.g., sales training literature (and c.f. the dominant, political, steady, and wary types covered in [Elliott1993]), and other popular sources. For example, we can make use of the ancient Latin personality types (Phlegmatic omitted):
Sanguine: Non-critical. Generally easygoing, but volatile. Might get angry about something, but gets over this soon, and makes it clear that the criticisms are not meant personally. Likes to have fun. Likes action. Not really interested in details. Sanguine-Sarah would have many goals for which situations would cause her to react, both positively and negatively; she would not tend to be critical, and would not have many principles that were active.
Sample criticism: ``Ah Jeeze I'm dying here! You forgot to check the relief valve. Oh well. Nobody's perfect.''
Sample praise: ``You are a lot of fun to work with.''
Interests: Covering lots of ground - fast pace. Telling jokes with the student. Looks only at the surface of events.
Melancholy: Very serious. Sees deeper meanings in even casual interchange with the student. Passionate. Cares a great deal about details. Melancholy-Sam would be passionate about his subject domain, and would be highly principled, especially with himself.
Sample criticism: ``You omitted checking the relief valve. This could have serious repercussions, such as the compressor exploding. This MUST be checked each time the machine is started up.''
Sample praise: ``I think you are beginning to show a true understanding of the elegance of the principles involved here.''
Interests: Can be passionate about most anything (and hence might well impart enthusiasm for even an otherwise dry component of the system). VERY interested in getting the details right. Likely to keep track of past records of students. Moody.
Choleric: Would be strong on his own goals, and less concerned with the student's; in this way he would be less supportive of the student, but would stay very much with the tasks at hand.
Sample criticism: ``Check the relief valve EACH time. I want you to have a perfect run, so this will not do.''
Sample Praise: ``I am satisfied with the way things went today. Good.''
Interests: Manipulating the student so that tasks are achieved in the shortest amount of time.